Prevalence, human leukocyte antigen typing and strategy for screening among Asian first-degree relatives of children with celiac disease.J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 25(2):319-24JG
BACKGROUND AND AIM
Data on prevalence, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing and small bowel histology among first-degree relatives of subjects with celiac disease (CD) is scarce. This prospective study evaluated the prevalence and role of HLA DQ2/8 testing in screening of first-degree relatives of children with CD.
Thirty confirmed children with CD and 91/94 first-degree relatives (parents and siblings) were enrolled. HLA DQ2/8 testing was carried out in all index CD cases. Clinical evaluation with a questionnaire, total serum immunoglobulin A (IgA), human IgA-tissue transglutaminase (IgA-tTGA) and HLA DQ2/8 testing was carried out in all first-degree relatives. Subjects who were positive for IgA-tTGA were recommended endoscopic duodenal biopsy to document histological changes of CD.
Nine first-degree relatives were positive for IgA-tTGA, seven underwent duodenal biopsy and four subjects had Marsh IIIa changes suggestive of CD. The prevalence of histologically confirmed CD in first-degree relatives was 4.4%. The prevalence of potential CD was 9.8%. IgA-tTGA-positive subjects (4/9) were significantly more often symptomatic than IgA-tTGA-negative first-degree relatives (2/82). Twenty-nine (96.6%) index cases of CD and all IgA-tTGA-positive first-degree relatives were positive for HLA DQ2. None of the index CD cases or first-degree relatives were HLA DQ8-positive. A total of 85% of the first-degree relatives were positive for HLA DQ2 and thus at risk of developing CD.
In this first Asian study on a limited number of families of children with CD, 4.4% of the first-degree relatives had CD. Only 15% of the first-degree relatives were negative for HLA DQ2/DQ8. Initial evaluation with HLA and serology followed by only serial serology in HLA-positive relatives is recommended.