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Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources.
Environ Res. 2010 Jan; 110(1):47-54.ER

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves.

OBJECTIVES

To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors.

METHODS

Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated.

RESULTS

The median kidney concentrations were 12.9microg/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21microg/g for mercury, and 0.08microg/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9microg/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7microg/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5microg/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed.

CONCLUSIONS

In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. lars.barregard@amm.gu.seNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19931045

Citation

Barregard, Lars, et al. "Cadmium, Mercury, and Lead in Kidney Cortex of Living Kidney Donors: Impact of Different Exposure Sources." Environmental Research, vol. 110, no. 1, 2010, pp. 47-54.
Barregard L, Fabricius-Lagging E, Lundh T, et al. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources. Environ Res. 2010;110(1):47-54.
Barregard, L., Fabricius-Lagging, E., Lundh, T., Mölne, J., Wallin, M., Olausson, M., Modigh, C., & Sallsten, G. (2010). Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources. Environmental Research, 110(1), 47-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2009.10.010
Barregard L, et al. Cadmium, Mercury, and Lead in Kidney Cortex of Living Kidney Donors: Impact of Different Exposure Sources. Environ Res. 2010;110(1):47-54. PubMed PMID: 19931045.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources. AU - Barregard,Lars, AU - Fabricius-Lagging,Elisabeth, AU - Lundh,Thomas, AU - Mölne,Johan, AU - Wallin,Maria, AU - Olausson,Michael, AU - Modigh,Cecilia, AU - Sallsten,Gerd, PY - 2009/07/03/received PY - 2009/10/09/revised PY - 2009/10/22/accepted PY - 2009/11/26/entrez PY - 2009/11/26/pubmed PY - 2010/1/13/medline SP - 47 EP - 54 JF - Environmental research JO - Environ Res VL - 110 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. OBJECTIVES: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. METHODS: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. RESULTS: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9microg/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21microg/g for mercury, and 0.08microg/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9microg/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7microg/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5microg/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. CONCLUSIONS: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure. SN - 1096-0953 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19931045/Cadmium_mercury_and_lead_in_kidney_cortex_of_living_kidney_donors:_Impact_of_different_exposure_sources_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0013-9351(09)00200-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -