Expression of a glutathione reductase from Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis enhanced cellular redox homeostasis by modulating antioxidant proteins in Escherichia coli.Mol Cells. 2009 Nov 30; 28(5):479-87.MC
Glutathione reductase (GR) is an enzyme that recycles a key cellular antioxidant molecule glutathione (GSH) from its oxidized form (GSSG) thus maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. A recombinant plasmid to overexpress a GR of Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (BrGR) in E. coli BL21 (DE3) was constructed using an expression vector pKM260. Expression of the introduced gene was confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting and enzyme assays. Purification of the BrGR protein was performed by IMAC method and indicated that the BrGR was a dimmer. The BrGR required NADPH as a cofactor and specific activity was approximately 458 U. The BrGR-expressing E. coli cells showed increased GR activity and tolerance to H(2)O(2), menadione, and heavy metal (CdCl(2), ZnCl(2) and AlCl(2))-mediated growth inhibition. The ectopic expression of BrGR provoked the co-regulation of a variety of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Consequently, the transformed cells showed decreased hydroperoxide levels when exposed to stressful conditions. A proteomic analysis demonstrated the higher level of induction of proteins involved in glycolysis, detoxification/oxidative stress response, protein folding, transport/binding proteins, cell envelope/porins, and protein translation and modification when exposed to H(2)O(2) stress. Taken together, these results indicate that the plant GR protein is functional in a cooperative way in the E. coli system to protect cells against oxidative stress.