[The morphology of the immune system in opiomania, cannabism, and polynarcotism].Arkh Patol. 2009 Sep-Oct; 71(5):35-40.AP
The organs of the immune system were morphologically and immunohistochemically studied in chronic opiomania (n = 219), cannabism (n = 22), and polynarcotism (n = 69) after excluding HIV-infected patients. In opiomania, immune disorders were identified in 98.6% of cases. These immune disorders differ according to their stage and characterize by the inversion of the T-helper/T-suppressor index, the reductions in the proliferative activity of lymphocytes and the production of immunoglobulins, atrophy of the thymus and T zones, and, in 37.4% of cases, persistent follicular hyperplasia of B zones with the impaired architectonics of lymphoid follicles. It is a cause of generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, which are similar to those observed in HIV infection. Infection with hepatitis B and C viruses enhances thymus and T-zone atrophy, but B-tone hyperplasia particularly in the lymph nodes of the hepatic hilum and spleen. In cannabism, the morphological signs of immunodeficiency were revealed only in 13.6% of the dead and there was no inversion of the T-helper/T-suppressor index. In polynarcotism, the involvement of immune organs is most severe and similar to that seen in opiomania.