Thirty-day NSQIP database outcomes of open versus endoluminal repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.J Vasc Surg. 2010 Feb; 51(2):305-9.e1.JV
The mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) has decreased 3.5% per decade in the last 50 years to a current rate of 40%-50%. Reports have indicated that endovascular repair (EVAR) is feasible for rAAA and may offer potential benefits over open repair. We examined the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database to compare 30-day multicenter outcomes for EVAR vs open rAAA repair.
Patients that underwent rAAA repair in the NSQIP database from 2005 to 2007 were identified through a combination of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes and International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnoses. Preoperative comorbidities, operative duration and transfusion, and 30 day outcomes were evaluated using t tests or Chi-squared tests depending on the variable. A separate multivariable regression was performed for each outcome adjusting for all independently predictive preoperative and intraoperative risk factors.
A total of 427 patients were identified and 76.8% of patients underwent open repair. The open repair groups exhibited lower albumin levels and higher percentage of patients with preoperative hematocrit (Hct) <38% and need for preoperative ventilation. The requirement for preoperative blood transfusion was similar. Patients undergoing open repair had much higher intraoperative transfusion requirements (11.8 +/- 8.9 vs 4.2 +/- 6.0 red blood cell units, P < .001). After adjustment for preoperative mortality risk factors, the mortality risk was higher for open repair versus EVAR (odds ratio 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-3.05, P = .096) but did not reach significance. After similar adjustment the composite morbidity odds ratio for open repair versus EVAR was 1.82 (95% CI 1.11-2.99, P = .018) and the pulmonary adverse events odds ratio was 1.99 (95% CI 1.22-3.25, P = .006). Risks for the other outcomes were not significant.
Composite 30-day morbidity risk is lower after EVAR vs open repair of rAAA. Open repair is associated with increased transfusion requirements. Performance of EVAR in rAAA patients with favorable anatomy could potentially result in improved outcome as compared with open repair.