Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: prospective assessment of abdominal US in the localization of gastrinomas.Radiology. 1991 Mar; 178(3):763-7.R
The ability of abdominal ultrasound (US) to help localize gastrinomas was prospectively studied in 79 patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The results were assessed by means of laparotomy, autopsy, or percutaneous liver biopsy. For hepatic gastrinoma, US had a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 100%, with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 89%. US was slightly less sensitive for detecting gastrinoma in the liver than were computed tomography (CT) (66%) and selective angiography (78%). For detection of extrahepatic gastrinoma, US had a sensitivity of 30%, a specificity of 94%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 25%. US enabled detection of tumor in eight cases not detected with CT and in four not detected with angiography. Specificity for extrahepatic gastrinoma was similar for all three modalities (89%-95%). CT and US were equally effective for the detection of extrahepatic gastrinoma, and angiography was significantly more effective than both US and CT (P less than .01). The authors conclude that US, although of low sensitivity, remains useful as the initial imaging modality in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.