Long-term effects of dietary sodium intake on cytokines and neurohormonal activation in patients with recently compensated congestive heart failure.J Card Fail. 2009 Dec; 15(10):864-73.JC
A growing body of evidence suggests that the fluid accumulation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) and that the inflammatory and neurohormonal activation contribute strongly to the progression of this disorder.
METHODS AND RESULTS
The study evaluated the long-term effects of 2 different sodium diets on cytokines neurohormones, body hydration and clinical outcome in compensated HF outpatients (New York Heart Association Class II). A total of 173 patients (105 males, mean age 72.5+/-7) recently hospitalized for worsening advanced HF and discharged in normal hydration and in clinical compensation were randomized in 2 groups (double blind). In Group 1, 86 patients received a moderate restriction in sodium (120mmol to 2.8g/day) plus oral furosemide (125 to 250mg bid); in Group 2, 87 patients: received a low-sodium diet (80mmol to 1.8g/day) plus oral furosemide (125 to 250mg bid). Both groups were followed for 12 months and the treatment was associated with a drink intake of 1000mL daily. Neurohormonal (brain natriuretic peptide, aldosterone, plasma rennin activity) and cytokines values (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6) were significantly reduced with a significant increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 at 12 months in normal, P < .0001) than low-sodium group. The low-sodium diet showed a significant activation of neurohormones and cytokines and worsening the body hydration, whereas moderate sodium restriction maintained dry weigh and improved outcome in the long term.
Our results appear to suggest a surprising efficacy of a new strategy to improve the chronic diuretic response by increasing Na intake and limiting fluid intake. This counterintuitive approach underlines the need for a better understanding of factors that regulate sodium and water handling in chronic congestive HF. A larger sample of patients and further studies are required to evaluate whether this is due to the high dose of diuretic used or the low-sodium diet.