Determinant factors of insufficient and excessive gestational weight gain and maternal-child adverse outcomes.Nutrition. 2010 Jun; 26(6):617-23.N
To estimate the magnitude and determinant factors of insufficient and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and its relation with maternal-child adverse outcomes.
This was a prospective study with 173 pregnant women and their newborns monitored at a primary health care facility in Rio de Janeiro. Multinomial regression models were employed, having as the outcome the adequacy of GWG (insufficient, adequate, or excessive). Covariables were classified as biological, socioeconomic, reproductive, behavioral, and nutritional.
Forty-one percent of pregnant women had insufficient GWG and 22.0% had excessive GWG. Pregestational overweight was associated with insufficient GWG (odds ratio [OR] 0.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.78), and pregestational obesity was associated with excessive GWG (OR 4.66, 95% CI 1.34-19.08). Also associated with insufficient GWG were a stature <157 cm (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.03-4.93) and ages 25-29 y (OR 3.70, 95% CI 1.26-10.84) and >or=30 y (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.13-7.35) compared with the reference group (18-24 y). Age <12 y at menarche (OR 4.97, 95% CI 1.51-16.30) and being a former smoker (OR 5.18, 95% CI 1.62-16.52) demonstrated an association with excessive GWG compared with non-smokers (reference group). Sixty percent of pregnant women with excessive GWG delivered by cesarean section compared with 39.8% with adequate or insufficient GWG (P < 0.05). Prevalence of macrosomia in the excessive GWG group was 23.5% compared with 4.5% for pregnant women with insufficient GWG (P < 0.001).
Different determinant factors related to insufficient and excessive GWG were observed, which can be identified in the beginning of pregnancy, thus predicting unfavorable gestational outcomes. An increased percentage of women presented GWGs outside recommended levels.