Relationship of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in older community-dwelling adults.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Feb; 64(2):203-9.EJ
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, poor muscle strength, falls, fractures and mortality. Although older adults are at a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency, the relationship of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality has not been well characterized in the elderly. We hypothesized that low serum 25(OH)D levels predicted mortality in older adults.
Serum 25(OH)D as well as all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality were examined in 1006 adults, aged > or =65 years, who participated in the InCHIANTI (Invecchiare in Chianti, Aging in the Chianti Area) study, a population-based, prospective cohort study of aging in Tuscany, Italy. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured at the time of enrollment in 1998-1999, and participants were followed up for mortality.
During 6.5 years of follow-up, 228 (22.7%) participants died, of whom 107 died due to cardiovascular diseases. Compared with participants in the highest quartile of serum 25(OH)D (>26.5 ng/ml) (to convert to nmol/l, multiply by 2.496), those in the lowest quartile (<10.5 ng/ml) had increased risk of all-cause mortality (Hazard Ratio (H.R.) 2.11, 95% Confidence Interval (95% C.I.): 1.22-3.64, P=0.007) and cardiovascular disease mortality (H.R. 2.64, 95% C.I.: 1.14-4.79, P=0.02), in multivariate Cox proportional hazards models that adjusted for age, sex, education, season, physical activity and other potential confounders.
Older community-dwelling adults with low serum 25(OH)D levels are at higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality.