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Investigating digit ratio (2D:4D) in a highly male-dominated occupation: the case of firefighters.
Scand J Psychol. 2010 Apr 01; 51(2):146-56.SJ

Abstract

Second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a widely studied putative marker for masculinization through prenatal androgen exposure, is lower (more masculinized) in athletes than in general population controls, and athletes with lower 2D:4D have higher sporting success. Occupations differ markedly in perceived masculinity and actual maleness (sex ratios), but these givens have not yet been picked up and utilized in 2D:4D research. Accordingly, this study extended existing accounts on 2D:4D in athletes to a novel approach: 2D:4D and possible relationships to a variety of candidate variables (demographic, fertility-related, psychological, and other) were investigated in firefighters, a highly male-dominated occupation. Contrary to expectation, 2D:4D in firefighters (N = 134) was not lower than in local male population controls. Lower 2D:4D corresponded to lower service ranks. Replicating previous findings either unequivocally or partly, lower 2D:4D was associated with larger family size, later sibling position, left-handedness, and higher scores in the disinhibition component of sensation seeking. Not replicating prior evidence, 2D:4D was unrelated to body-mass index, offspring sex ratio, and sporting performance level. Novel findings included low 2D:4D in those with low relationship satisfaction and in cigarette smokers, especially among heavy smokers. Absolute finger length, a positive correlate of pubertal-adolescent androgen levels, was also considered. This marker showed negative associations with relationship consensus and satisfaction and positive ones with perceived quality of relationship alternatives and the experience seeking component of sensation seeking. The merits of this additional marker, relative to 2D:4D, for supplementing studies of possible sex-hormonal effects on personality and directions for future inquiry along these lines are discussed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Basic Psychological Research, School of Psychology, University of Vienna, Liebiggasse 5, Rm 03-46, A-1010, Vienna, Austria. martin.voracek@univie.ac.atNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19954495

Citation

Voracek, Martin, et al. "Investigating Digit Ratio (2D:4D) in a Highly Male-dominated Occupation: the Case of Firefighters." Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, vol. 51, no. 2, 2010, pp. 146-56.
Voracek M, Pum U, Dressler SG. Investigating digit ratio (2D:4D) in a highly male-dominated occupation: the case of firefighters. Scand J Psychol. 2010;51(2):146-56.
Voracek, M., Pum, U., & Dressler, S. G. (2010). Investigating digit ratio (2D:4D) in a highly male-dominated occupation: the case of firefighters. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51(2), 146-56. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2009.00758.x
Voracek M, Pum U, Dressler SG. Investigating Digit Ratio (2D:4D) in a Highly Male-dominated Occupation: the Case of Firefighters. Scand J Psychol. 2010 Apr 1;51(2):146-56. PubMed PMID: 19954495.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Investigating digit ratio (2D:4D) in a highly male-dominated occupation: the case of firefighters. AU - Voracek,Martin, AU - Pum,Ulrike, AU - Dressler,Stefan G, Y1 - 2009/11/24/ PY - 2009/12/4/entrez PY - 2009/12/4/pubmed PY - 2010/7/27/medline SP - 146 EP - 56 JF - Scandinavian journal of psychology JO - Scand J Psychol VL - 51 IS - 2 N2 - Second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a widely studied putative marker for masculinization through prenatal androgen exposure, is lower (more masculinized) in athletes than in general population controls, and athletes with lower 2D:4D have higher sporting success. Occupations differ markedly in perceived masculinity and actual maleness (sex ratios), but these givens have not yet been picked up and utilized in 2D:4D research. Accordingly, this study extended existing accounts on 2D:4D in athletes to a novel approach: 2D:4D and possible relationships to a variety of candidate variables (demographic, fertility-related, psychological, and other) were investigated in firefighters, a highly male-dominated occupation. Contrary to expectation, 2D:4D in firefighters (N = 134) was not lower than in local male population controls. Lower 2D:4D corresponded to lower service ranks. Replicating previous findings either unequivocally or partly, lower 2D:4D was associated with larger family size, later sibling position, left-handedness, and higher scores in the disinhibition component of sensation seeking. Not replicating prior evidence, 2D:4D was unrelated to body-mass index, offspring sex ratio, and sporting performance level. Novel findings included low 2D:4D in those with low relationship satisfaction and in cigarette smokers, especially among heavy smokers. Absolute finger length, a positive correlate of pubertal-adolescent androgen levels, was also considered. This marker showed negative associations with relationship consensus and satisfaction and positive ones with perceived quality of relationship alternatives and the experience seeking component of sensation seeking. The merits of this additional marker, relative to 2D:4D, for supplementing studies of possible sex-hormonal effects on personality and directions for future inquiry along these lines are discussed. SN - 1467-9450 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19954495/Investigating_digit_ratio__2D:4D__in_a_highly_male_dominated_occupation:_the_case_of_firefighters_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2009.00758.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -