Stressful psychosocial factors and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a population-based study in Norway.Scand J Gastroenterol 2010; 45(1):21-9SJ
Adverse psychosocial factors, including work-related stress, are, like gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), increasing health problems in industrialized countries. The importance of clarifying the relation between psychosocial factors and GERD has been stressed, but there are few population-based studies.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
This was a population-based, cross-sectional, case-control study based on two health surveys conducted in the Norwegian county Nord-Trondelag in 1984-86 and 1995-97. GERD symptoms were assessed in the second survey, which included 65,333 participants, representing 70% of the county's adult population. The 3153 persons reporting severe GERD symptoms were defined as cases and the 40,210 persons without such symptoms were defined as controls. Data on psychosocial factors and potential confounders were collected using questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression.
In models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, obesity and socioeconomic status, positive associations were observed between high job demands (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.2), low job control (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2) and job strain (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.4) and risk of GERD symptoms. Persons reporting low job satisfaction had a twofold (95% CI 1.6-2.5) increased risk of GERD compared to persons reporting high job satisfaction. Self pressure (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-2.1) and time pressure (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.7-2.4) were positively associated with GERD symptoms. These associations were attenuated after further adjustment for anxiety, depression, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke and insomnia, but remained statistically significant.
This population-based study reveals a link between stressful psychosocial factors, including job strain, and GERD symptoms.