Ultrasonographic evaluation of carotid intima-media thickness in hypertensive and normotensive individuals.Nepal Med Coll J 2009; 11(2):133-5NM
This was a case control study designed to evaluate carotid intima-medial thickness (IMT) by high-resolution ultrasound in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. High-resolution carotid ultrasound was done in 203 hypertensive patients (cases) and 101 normotensive individuals (control). Scanning of bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) was performed in anteroposterior projections. To obtain a better image sound wave was adjusted perpendicularly to the arterial surface of the posterior wall of the vessel, yielding two parallel echogenic lines which correspond to lumen-intima and media-adventitia interfaces. Intima-medial thickness was measured in the far wall 1-1.5 cm proximal to the bulb bilaterally. The age of the study population ranged from 35 to 65 years. Mean IMT was significantly high in hypertensive patients compared to the control group, p<0.001 (in cases, IMT in right side was 0.968 mm and that of left side was 0.969 mm and in control group IMT of right side was 0.551 mm and that of left side was 0.555 mm). A significant difference in IMT of bilateral common carotid arteries was found between the smoker and non-smoker hypertensive patients (p<0.02). IMT was found to increase progressively with age. In conclusion, the study revealed a strong correlation between IMT of common carotid artery and hypertension. Hence, IMT measurement of CCA by high-resolution ultrasound in hypertensive patients is a helpful tool to assess the atherosclerosis and to identify individual at risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications.