Optimal preparation for ESRD.Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009 Dec; 4 Suppl 1:S110-3.CJ
Clinical guidelines for the care of patients with progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been developed by a broad range of organizations within the kidney community. Despite consensus among these guidelines and significant effort on the part of federal agencies, voluntary health organizations, and professional groups, existing data suggest that much work remains to achieve acceptable levels of recommended care. Several small studies have described CKD interventions to improve outcomes, but there are few examples of large-scale attempts to improve CKD care in a systematic way. Southern California Kaiser Permanente has developed a population management approach to CKD in a health maintenance organization setting that has improved outcomes. The Indian Health Service, an agency of the Public Health Service that provides direct care to American Indians and Alaska Natives, has enhanced its diabetes care delivery system to address the renal complications of diabetes. This effort may explain a significant decrease in the incidence rate of ESRD among American Indians with diabetes. Because much of the burden of CKD falls on ethnic and racial groups with decreased access to care, enhancing CKD care in the primary setting may offer the best opportunity to improve outcomes. The National Kidney Disease Education Program in collaboration with community heath centers has developed a model to improve outcomes through application of the chronic care model to CKD management in primary settings that serve high-risk populations.