Cognitive performance in nondemented nonpsychotic Parkinson disease patients with or without a history of depression prior to the onset of motor symptoms.J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2010 Mar; 23(1):15-26.JG
In Parkinson disease (PD), cognitive impairment is common, occurs mainly in the form of milder deficits (as opposed to dementia), and commonly coincides with depression. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated whether depression that existed before the onset of typical motor symptoms (pre-PD depression) reflected on the actual cognitive performance. Nondemented nonpsychotic PD patients with (test, n = 27) and without (control, n = 112) a history of pre-PD depression, caliper-matched for age, education, and disease duration were assessed for motor and nonmotor disease characteristics and in a battery of cognitive tests. Test patients had higher actual depression/anxiety levels. Gradual multivariate and mediation analysis indicated unfavorable effects of pre-PD depression on cognition: a direct effect on mental set shifting/response inhibition (independent of actual depression/ anxiety or other factors); and indirect effects on other cognitive domains mediated through the increased depression/anxiety. Data suggest that pre-PD depression favors poorer cognitive abilities in nondemented patients at a given time after PD has been diagnosed.