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Characterization of motor control in handwriting difficulties in children with or without developmental coordination disorder.
Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010 Mar; 52(3):244-50.DM

Abstract

AIM

The purpose of this study was to characterize handwriting deficits in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) using computerized movement analyses.

METHOD

Seventy-two children (40 females, 32 males; mean age 7 y, SD 7 mo; range 6 y 2 mo to 7 y 11 mo) with handwriting deficits (33 with DCD, 39 without DCD); and 22 age- and sex-matched children without handwriting deficits were asked to perform handwriting tasks on a digital tablet for the collection of kinematic and kinetic data. Practice times required to achieve automation of movement when writing an unfamiliar character were used to assess the motor learning of handwriting. The children were asked to copy three simple and three complex characters, and the velocity and axial pen force used for corresponding strokes were compared.

RESULTS

The attainment of automated handwriting was markedly slower in children with handwriting deficits and DCD, who used a faster stroke velocity to write simple characters (1.22 times those without handwriting deficits), but when writing complex characters, their stroke velocity and pen force were lower (0.85 and 0.89 times those without handwriting deficits, respectively).

INTERPRETATION

By linking the results with neuromotor control theories, it was determined that children with DCD have difficulties performing the open-loop and closed-loop movements required for fluent handwriting.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Occupational Therapy, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20002122

Citation

Chang, Shao-Hsia, and Nan-Ying Yu. "Characterization of Motor Control in Handwriting Difficulties in Children With or Without Developmental Coordination Disorder." Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, vol. 52, no. 3, 2010, pp. 244-50.
Chang SH, Yu NY. Characterization of motor control in handwriting difficulties in children with or without developmental coordination disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010;52(3):244-50.
Chang, S. H., & Yu, N. Y. (2010). Characterization of motor control in handwriting difficulties in children with or without developmental coordination disorder. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 52(3), 244-50. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03478.x
Chang SH, Yu NY. Characterization of Motor Control in Handwriting Difficulties in Children With or Without Developmental Coordination Disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010;52(3):244-50. PubMed PMID: 20002122.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Characterization of motor control in handwriting difficulties in children with or without developmental coordination disorder. AU - Chang,Shao-Hsia, AU - Yu,Nan-Ying, Y1 - 2010/02/04/ PY - 2009/12/17/entrez PY - 2009/12/17/pubmed PY - 2010/9/14/medline SP - 244 EP - 50 JF - Developmental medicine and child neurology JO - Dev Med Child Neurol VL - 52 IS - 3 N2 - AIM: The purpose of this study was to characterize handwriting deficits in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) using computerized movement analyses. METHOD: Seventy-two children (40 females, 32 males; mean age 7 y, SD 7 mo; range 6 y 2 mo to 7 y 11 mo) with handwriting deficits (33 with DCD, 39 without DCD); and 22 age- and sex-matched children without handwriting deficits were asked to perform handwriting tasks on a digital tablet for the collection of kinematic and kinetic data. Practice times required to achieve automation of movement when writing an unfamiliar character were used to assess the motor learning of handwriting. The children were asked to copy three simple and three complex characters, and the velocity and axial pen force used for corresponding strokes were compared. RESULTS: The attainment of automated handwriting was markedly slower in children with handwriting deficits and DCD, who used a faster stroke velocity to write simple characters (1.22 times those without handwriting deficits), but when writing complex characters, their stroke velocity and pen force were lower (0.85 and 0.89 times those without handwriting deficits, respectively). INTERPRETATION: By linking the results with neuromotor control theories, it was determined that children with DCD have difficulties performing the open-loop and closed-loop movements required for fluent handwriting. SN - 1469-8749 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20002122/Characterization_of_motor_control_in_handwriting_difficulties_in_children_with_or_without_developmental_coordination_disorder_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03478.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -