Co-tolerance of phytoplankton communities to photosynthesis II inhibitors.Aquat Toxicol. 2010 Mar 01; 96(4):256-63.AT
Natural variability in sensitivity and pollution induced community tolerance (PICT) to atrazine, isoproturon and diuron and a mixture of these three herbicides to natural algal assemblages in mesocosms was determined. The specificity of PICT was examined by evaluating co-tolerance pattern for these photosystem-II (PSII) inhibitors. Phytoplankton communities were constantly exposed to equipotent concentrations of atrazine, isoproturon, diuron namely the 30% hazard concentration (HC(30)) obtained from species sensitivity distributions and an equitoxic mixture (Sigma3 x 1/3 x HC(30) of each herbicide) for five weeks in outdoor mesocosms. Induction of tolerance to the various herbicides was investigated by photosynthetic efficiency measurements of the algal assemblages in short-term laboratory tests. The composition of the algal communities in the various treatments was determined and ordination techniques such as the principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to log-transformed data to compare the seasonal community structure development. Temporal variation in sensitivity of the control algal assemblage to atrazine and isoproturon, but less to diuron was observed. The results further demonstrated that the control communities were in general more sensitive than the treated ones over the whole period tested indicating an enhanced tolerance of pre-exposed phytoplankton in the mesocosms. Co-tolerance was also observed for atrazine pre-exposed algal community to isoproturon, however, not vise versa. A pre-exposure to diuron induced similar tolerance to all three herbicides. A pre-exposure to the mixture treatment also lead to tolerance to isoproturon and diuron, less to atrazine. Overall, the observed co-tolerance pattern indicates that co-tolerance was not comparable between the herbicides with strong similarity in their biochemical mode of action.