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A cross-sectional study on levels of second-hand smoke in restaurants and bars in five cities in China.
Tob Control. 2010 Oct; 19 Suppl 2:i24-9.TC

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To assess indoor second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in restaurants and bars via PM(2.5) (fine particles 2.5 μm in diameter and smaller) level measurements in five cities in China.

METHODS

The study was conducted from July to September in 2007 in Beijing, Xi'an, Wuhan, Kunming and Guiyang. Portable aerosol monitors were used to measure PM(2.5) concentrations in 404 restaurants and bars. The occupant density and the active smoker density were calculated for each venue sampled.

RESULTS

Among the 404 surveyed venues, 23 had complete smoking bans, 9 had partial smoking bans and 313 (77.5%) were observed to have allowed smoking during sampling. The geometric mean of indoor PM(2.5) levels in venues with smoking observed was 208 μg/m(3) and 99 μg/m(3) in venues without observed smoking. When outdoor PM(2.5) levels were adjusted, indoor PM(2.5) levels in venues with smoking observed were consistently significantly higher than in venues without smoking observed (F=80.49, p<0.001). Indoor PM(2.5) levels were positively correlated with outdoor PM(2.5) levels (partial rho=0.37 p<0.001) and active smoker density (partial rho=0.34, p<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Consistent with findings in other countries, PM(2.5) levels in smoking places are significantly higher than those in smoke-free places and are strongly related to the number and density of active smokers. These findings document the high levels of SHS in hospitality venues in China and point to the urgent need for comprehensive smoke-free laws in China to protect the public from SHS hazards, as called for in Article 8 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which was ratified by China in 2005.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chinese National Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. ruiling_liu@berkeley.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20008154

Citation

Liu, R L., et al. "A Cross-sectional Study On Levels of Second-hand Smoke in Restaurants and Bars in Five Cities in China." Tobacco Control, vol. 19 Suppl 2, 2010, pp. i24-9.
Liu RL, Yang Y, Travers MJ, et al. A cross-sectional study on levels of second-hand smoke in restaurants and bars in five cities in China. Tob Control. 2010;19 Suppl 2:i24-9.
Liu, R. L., Yang, Y., Travers, M. J., Fong, G. T., O'Connor, R. J., Hyland, A., Li, L., Nan, Y., Feng, G. Z., Li, Q., & Jiang, Y. (2010). A cross-sectional study on levels of second-hand smoke in restaurants and bars in five cities in China. Tobacco Control, 19 Suppl 2, i24-9. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2009.029959
Liu RL, et al. A Cross-sectional Study On Levels of Second-hand Smoke in Restaurants and Bars in Five Cities in China. Tob Control. 2010;19 Suppl 2:i24-9. PubMed PMID: 20008154.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A cross-sectional study on levels of second-hand smoke in restaurants and bars in five cities in China. AU - Liu,R L, AU - Yang,Y, AU - Travers,M J, AU - Fong,G T, AU - O'Connor,R J, AU - Hyland,A, AU - Li,L, AU - Nan,Y, AU - Feng,G Z, AU - Li,Q, AU - Jiang,Y, Y1 - 2009/12/11/ PY - 2009/12/17/entrez PY - 2009/12/17/pubmed PY - 2011/1/21/medline SP - i24 EP - 9 JF - Tobacco control JO - Tob Control VL - 19 Suppl 2 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To assess indoor second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in restaurants and bars via PM(2.5) (fine particles 2.5 μm in diameter and smaller) level measurements in five cities in China. METHODS: The study was conducted from July to September in 2007 in Beijing, Xi'an, Wuhan, Kunming and Guiyang. Portable aerosol monitors were used to measure PM(2.5) concentrations in 404 restaurants and bars. The occupant density and the active smoker density were calculated for each venue sampled. RESULTS: Among the 404 surveyed venues, 23 had complete smoking bans, 9 had partial smoking bans and 313 (77.5%) were observed to have allowed smoking during sampling. The geometric mean of indoor PM(2.5) levels in venues with smoking observed was 208 μg/m(3) and 99 μg/m(3) in venues without observed smoking. When outdoor PM(2.5) levels were adjusted, indoor PM(2.5) levels in venues with smoking observed were consistently significantly higher than in venues without smoking observed (F=80.49, p<0.001). Indoor PM(2.5) levels were positively correlated with outdoor PM(2.5) levels (partial rho=0.37 p<0.001) and active smoker density (partial rho=0.34, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with findings in other countries, PM(2.5) levels in smoking places are significantly higher than those in smoke-free places and are strongly related to the number and density of active smokers. These findings document the high levels of SHS in hospitality venues in China and point to the urgent need for comprehensive smoke-free laws in China to protect the public from SHS hazards, as called for in Article 8 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which was ratified by China in 2005. SN - 1468-3318 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20008154/A_cross_sectional_study_on_levels_of_second_hand_smoke_in_restaurants_and_bars_in_five_cities_in_China_ L2 - http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/lookup/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=20008154 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -