Anaphylaxis to wheat flour-derived foodstuffs and the lipid transfer protein syndrome: a potential role of wheat lipid transfer protein Tri a 14.Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2010; 152(2):178-83IA
Food allergy to wheat-derived foodstuffs is on the rise. Tri a 14, a wheat flour lipid transfer protein (LTP) allergen, has been described as a major allergen associated with baker's asthma and wheat food allergy. Cross-reactivity among LTP allergens leads to the so-called 'LTP syndrome'.
Eight adult patients showing anaphylaxis after ingestion of wheat-derived foodstuffs were selected. A homemade wheat extract, purified natural (n) and recombinant (r) Tri a 14, and peach fruit and Artemisia pollen LTP allergens Pru p 3 and Art v 3 were subjected to skin prick test, specific IgE determination (ELISA) and IgE immunodetection assays.
All tests were positive in the 8 selected patients with the homemade extract. Positive skin prick test responses to nTri a 14, Pru p 3 and Art v 3 were found in 5/8, 6/8 and 4/4 patients, respectively. Specific IgE determined by ELISA assays was detected in 6 to nTri a 14 and rTri a 14, in 4 to Pru p 3 and in 3 to Art v 3 out of 8 individual sera tested, whereas all these sera showed IgE binding to nTri a 14 and Pru p 3 in immunodetection after SDS-PAGE separation.
Tri a 14 seems to be a relevant allergen in patients with anaphylaxis after ingestion of wheat flour foodstuffs, according to in vitro and in vivo results. Clinical history of the analyzed patients, together with sensitization to peach Pru p 3 and Artemisia pollen Art v 3, suggests that 6 of them suffer from LTP syndrome.