Coeliac disease and reproductive disorders.Scand J Gastroenterol 2010; 45(4):395-402SJ
Reproductive problems, such as delayed menarche, amenorrhea, early menopause, infertility, impotence, hypogonadism, recurrent abortions, and low-birth-weight or preterm deliveries, are now known to be among the atypical symptoms of coeliac disease (CD). The pathogenesis of reproductive disorders in CD is unclear, but some hypotheses have been suggested, including autoimmunity and macro- and/or micronutrient deficiency. Recent investigations which have focused on tissue transglutaminase are promising with respect to the clarification of the mechanism of infertility and poor pregnancy outcomes in CD. In this review, the effects of CD on male and female reproductive disorders and pregnancy outcomes are discussed and the need for CD screening in the case of reproductive problems is emphasized.