Duration of fever affects the likelihood of a positive bag urinalysis or catheter culture in young children.J Pediatr. 2010 Apr; 156(4):629-33.JPed
To test the hypothesis that there will be a clinically significant rise in the proportion of positive bag urinalyses and catheter cultures in young children with increasing duration of fever.
This was a prospective cohort study of 818 infants and children age 3-36 months presenting to a tertiary care emergency department with documented fever without source. Following the documentation of fever from < 1 to > or = 5 days, bag specimens were collected for urinalysis. The primary outcome was the yield of positive bag dipsticks by day, defined as positive for nitrates or more than trace leukocyte esterase. The secondary outcome was positive catheter cultures on each day of fever.
Positive bag urinalyses increased with duration of fever: 14.8% (35/237) on day 1 versus 26.4% (43/163) on day 3 (relative risk [RR] = 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-2.7; P = .004). Positive catheter cultures increased in the same fashion: 4.8% (11/229) on day 1 versus 12.6% (20/159) on day 3 (RR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.3-5.3; P = .005).
The yield of positive bag urinalyses and catheter cultures increased significantly in children with fever of 3 days or longer duration.