Anaemia, zinc and copper deficiencies among pregnant women in central Sudan.Biol Trace Elem Res 2010; 137(3):255-61BT
Anaemia is a widespread problem in many parts of the world especially in tropic areas. Among pregnant women, it has negative consequences on maternal and perinatal outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of anaemia, iron, zinc and copper deficiencies among pregnant women in Wad Medani hospital, central Sudan and to examine the relationship of these micronutrients with haemoglobin (Hb) levels. One hundred four (52.5%) out of 200 pregnant women had anaemia (Hb < 11 gm/dl) and 3 (1.5) % had severe anaemia (Hb < 7 gm/dl). Iron deficiency (S-ferritin < 15 µg/l), iron deficiency anaemia (<11 gm/dl and S-ferritin < 15 µg/l) were prevalent in 25 (12.5%) and 13 (6.5%) of these women, respectively. Ninety (45.0%) and eight (4.0%) of these women had zinc (<80 µg/ml) and copper (<80 µg/ml) deficiency, respectively. In 24 (12.0%) of these women, there were ≥2 deficiencies of these elements. S-copper was not [corrected] significantly lower in patients with anaemia. While age, parity, gestational age, ferritin, zinc and copper were not predictors for anaemia, women who practiced pica were at higher risk for anaemia (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.4-7.9, P = 0.004). Gestational age was significantly inversely correlated with haemoglobin (r = 0.161, P = 0.03), S-ferritin (r = 0.285, P = 0.001) and S-zinc (r = 0.166, P = 0.02). Thus, dietary and supplement interventions are required to prevent and control anaemia in this setting. Further research is needed.