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Effects of a low-salt diet on idiopathic hypercalciuria in calcium-oxalate stone formers: a 3-mo randomized controlled trial.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Mar; 91(3):565-70.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

A direct relation exists between sodium and calcium excretion, but randomized studies evaluating the sustained effect of a low-salt diet on idiopathic hypercalciuria, one of the main risk factors for calcium-oxalate stone formation, are still lacking.

OBJECTIVE

Our goal was to evaluate the effect of a low-salt diet on urinary calcium excretion in patients affected by idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis.

DESIGN

Patients affected by idiopathic calcium stone disease and hypercalciuria (>300 mg Ca/d in men and >250 mg Ca/d in women) were randomly assigned to receive either water therapy alone (control diet) or water therapy and a low-salt diet (low-sodium diet) for 3 mo. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were obtained twice from all patients: one sample at baseline on a free diet and one sample after 3 mo of treatment.

RESULTS

A total of 210 patients were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (n = 102) or a low-sodium diet (n = 108); 13 patients (2 on the control diet, 11 on the low-sodium diet) withdrew from the trial. At the follow-up visit, patients on the low-sodium diet had lower urinary sodium (mean +/- SD: 68 +/- 43 mmol/d at 3 mo compared with 228 +/- 57 mmol/d at baseline; P < 0.001). Concomitant with this change, they showed lower urinary calcium (271 +/- 86 mg/d at 3 mo compared with 361 +/- 129 mg/d on the control diet, P < 0.001) and lower oxalate excretion (28 +/- 8 mg/d at 3 mo compared with 32 +/- 10 mg/d on the control diet, P = 0.001). Urinary calcium was within the normal range in 61.9% of the patients on the low-salt diet and in 34.0% of those on the control diet (difference: +27.9%; 95% CI: +14.4%, +41.3%; P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION

A low-salt diet can reduce calcium excretion in hypercalciuric stone formers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01005082.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Parma, Parma, Italy. antonio.nouvenne@alice.itNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20042524

Citation

Nouvenne, Antonio, et al. "Effects of a Low-salt Diet On Idiopathic Hypercalciuria in Calcium-oxalate Stone Formers: a 3-mo Randomized Controlled Trial." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 91, no. 3, 2010, pp. 565-70.
Nouvenne A, Meschi T, Prati B, et al. Effects of a low-salt diet on idiopathic hypercalciuria in calcium-oxalate stone formers: a 3-mo randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(3):565-70.
Nouvenne, A., Meschi, T., Prati, B., Guerra, A., Allegri, F., Vezzoli, G., Soldati, L., Gambaro, G., Maggiore, U., & Borghi, L. (2010). Effects of a low-salt diet on idiopathic hypercalciuria in calcium-oxalate stone formers: a 3-mo randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(3), 565-70. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.28614
Nouvenne A, et al. Effects of a Low-salt Diet On Idiopathic Hypercalciuria in Calcium-oxalate Stone Formers: a 3-mo Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(3):565-70. PubMed PMID: 20042524.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of a low-salt diet on idiopathic hypercalciuria in calcium-oxalate stone formers: a 3-mo randomized controlled trial. AU - Nouvenne,Antonio, AU - Meschi,Tiziana, AU - Prati,Beatrice, AU - Guerra,Angela, AU - Allegri,Franca, AU - Vezzoli,Giuseppe, AU - Soldati,Laura, AU - Gambaro,Giovanni, AU - Maggiore,Umberto, AU - Borghi,Loris, Y1 - 2009/12/30/ PY - 2010/1/1/entrez PY - 2010/1/1/pubmed PY - 2010/3/31/medline SP - 565 EP - 70 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 91 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: A direct relation exists between sodium and calcium excretion, but randomized studies evaluating the sustained effect of a low-salt diet on idiopathic hypercalciuria, one of the main risk factors for calcium-oxalate stone formation, are still lacking. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to evaluate the effect of a low-salt diet on urinary calcium excretion in patients affected by idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis. DESIGN: Patients affected by idiopathic calcium stone disease and hypercalciuria (>300 mg Ca/d in men and >250 mg Ca/d in women) were randomly assigned to receive either water therapy alone (control diet) or water therapy and a low-salt diet (low-sodium diet) for 3 mo. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were obtained twice from all patients: one sample at baseline on a free diet and one sample after 3 mo of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 210 patients were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (n = 102) or a low-sodium diet (n = 108); 13 patients (2 on the control diet, 11 on the low-sodium diet) withdrew from the trial. At the follow-up visit, patients on the low-sodium diet had lower urinary sodium (mean +/- SD: 68 +/- 43 mmol/d at 3 mo compared with 228 +/- 57 mmol/d at baseline; P < 0.001). Concomitant with this change, they showed lower urinary calcium (271 +/- 86 mg/d at 3 mo compared with 361 +/- 129 mg/d on the control diet, P < 0.001) and lower oxalate excretion (28 +/- 8 mg/d at 3 mo compared with 32 +/- 10 mg/d on the control diet, P = 0.001). Urinary calcium was within the normal range in 61.9% of the patients on the low-salt diet and in 34.0% of those on the control diet (difference: +27.9%; 95% CI: +14.4%, +41.3%; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A low-salt diet can reduce calcium excretion in hypercalciuric stone formers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01005082. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20042524/Effects_of_a_low_salt_diet_on_idiopathic_hypercalciuria_in_calcium_oxalate_stone_formers:_a_3_mo_randomized_controlled_trial_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.2009.28614 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -