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Occurrence risk and structure of depression in Parkinson disease with and without dementia: results from the GEPAD Study.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2010 Mar; 23(1):27-34.JG

Abstract

BACKGROUND

This study examined the age- and gender-specific risk of depression in demented and non-demented participants, its symptom structure, and associated clinical factors in a nationwide random sample of n = 1449 outpatients with Parkinson disease (PD).

METHODS

Depression ratings were based on a cross-sectional clinical assessment including the clinical Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS > or = 14). Parkinson disease severity was rated according to Hoehn and Yahr (HY) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Diagnosis of dementia was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition; DSM-IV) criteria.

RESULTS

25.2% (CI: 22.8-27.5) of all patients met study criteria for depression. Additionally, 8.4% of patients did not exceed the MADRS cut-off but were currently being treated with antidepressants, possibly suggesting a corrected (upper limit) total prevalence of 33.6%. Females were more likely depressive than males (29.3% vs 22.4%). In both genders, depression risk was elevated 2- to 4-fold depending on HY stage. Overall, highest rates in non-demented patients were found in females at stages IV to V (53.7%, CI: 37.7-69.6). Demented patients were more likely to meet depression criteria than non-demented (up to 76.2%, 95% CI: 60.5-87.9). Depression symptom profiles for demented PD patients (as compared to non-demented) revealed no structural differences but consistently higher symptom scores. Neither age at onset of PD nor duration of disease were significantly linked with depression.

CONCLUSIONS

Depression rates are already substantially elevated at early PD stages, emphasizing the need for a thorough examination of mood disorders in all patients with PD. Depression is associated with PD severity and dementia but not with age, age at onset of PD, or disease duration. The differential associations with dementia and the statistical independence of dementia and depression also suggest that depression could not be regarded as a mere demoralisation syndrome.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Dresden, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20042544

Citation

Riedel, Oliver, et al. "Occurrence Risk and Structure of Depression in Parkinson Disease With and Without Dementia: Results From the GEPAD Study." Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, vol. 23, no. 1, 2010, pp. 27-34.
Riedel O, Heuser I, Klotsche J, et al. Occurrence risk and structure of depression in Parkinson disease with and without dementia: results from the GEPAD Study. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2010;23(1):27-34.
Riedel, O., Heuser, I., Klotsche, J., Dodel, R., & Wittchen, H. U. (2010). Occurrence risk and structure of depression in Parkinson disease with and without dementia: results from the GEPAD Study. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 23(1), 27-34. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891988709351833
Riedel O, et al. Occurrence Risk and Structure of Depression in Parkinson Disease With and Without Dementia: Results From the GEPAD Study. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2010;23(1):27-34. PubMed PMID: 20042544.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Occurrence risk and structure of depression in Parkinson disease with and without dementia: results from the GEPAD Study. AU - Riedel,Oliver, AU - Heuser,Isabella, AU - Klotsche,Jens, AU - Dodel,Richard, AU - Wittchen,Hans-Ulrich, AU - ,, Y1 - 2009/12/30/ PY - 2010/1/1/entrez PY - 2010/1/1/pubmed PY - 2010/5/12/medline SP - 27 EP - 34 JF - Journal of geriatric psychiatry and neurology JO - J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol VL - 23 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: This study examined the age- and gender-specific risk of depression in demented and non-demented participants, its symptom structure, and associated clinical factors in a nationwide random sample of n = 1449 outpatients with Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Depression ratings were based on a cross-sectional clinical assessment including the clinical Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS > or = 14). Parkinson disease severity was rated according to Hoehn and Yahr (HY) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Diagnosis of dementia was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition; DSM-IV) criteria. RESULTS: 25.2% (CI: 22.8-27.5) of all patients met study criteria for depression. Additionally, 8.4% of patients did not exceed the MADRS cut-off but were currently being treated with antidepressants, possibly suggesting a corrected (upper limit) total prevalence of 33.6%. Females were more likely depressive than males (29.3% vs 22.4%). In both genders, depression risk was elevated 2- to 4-fold depending on HY stage. Overall, highest rates in non-demented patients were found in females at stages IV to V (53.7%, CI: 37.7-69.6). Demented patients were more likely to meet depression criteria than non-demented (up to 76.2%, 95% CI: 60.5-87.9). Depression symptom profiles for demented PD patients (as compared to non-demented) revealed no structural differences but consistently higher symptom scores. Neither age at onset of PD nor duration of disease were significantly linked with depression. CONCLUSIONS: Depression rates are already substantially elevated at early PD stages, emphasizing the need for a thorough examination of mood disorders in all patients with PD. Depression is associated with PD severity and dementia but not with age, age at onset of PD, or disease duration. The differential associations with dementia and the statistical independence of dementia and depression also suggest that depression could not be regarded as a mere demoralisation syndrome. SN - 0891-9887 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20042544/Occurrence_risk_and_structure_of_depression_in_Parkinson_disease_with_and_without_dementia:_results_from_the_GEPAD_Study_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0891988709351833?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -