Long-term outcome of total and near-total resection of spinal cord lipomas and radical reconstruction of the neural placode, part II: outcome analysis and preoperative profiling.Neurosurgery. 2010 Feb; 66(2):253-72; discussion 272-3.N
To show the long-term benefits of total and near-total resection of complex spinal cord lipomas and reconstruction of the neural placode.
We analyzed 238 patients with dorsal, transitional, and chaotic lipomas who had total resection as described in part I for overall progression-free survival probability (PFS, Kaplan-Meier analysis) over 16 years. We also analyzed subgroup proportional recurrence hazard (Cox analysis) of 6 outcome predictors of sex, lipoma type, age, preoperative symptoms, previous surgery, and postoperative cord-sac ratio. These results were compared with an age-matched, lesion-matched series of 116 patients followed for 11 years after partial lipoma resection and with the Parisian series of nonsurgical treatment.
The immediate effects of surgery were similar between total and partial resection: both achieved greater than 95% symptom stabilization or improvement rate. The neuro-urologic complication rates for the groups were also similar, 4.2% and 5.2% for total and partial resection, respectively. The combined cerebrospinal fluid leakage and wound complication rate of total resection was much lower at 2.5% than the 6.9% for partial resection, but both were better than published rates. The overall PFS for total resection was 82.8% at 16 years, comparing much more favorably with 34.6% for partial resection at 10.5 years (P < .0001). Culling only the asymptomatic patients with virgin (previously unoperated) lipomas to match the patient profile of the Parisian series, the PFS for prophylactic total resection for this subgroup increased to 98.4% at 16 years, versus 67% at 9 years for no surgery and 43.3% at 10.5 years for our own partial resection series, with a remarkable statistical difference between total and partial resection (P = .00001). Subgroup analyses showed that sex and lipoma type did not affect outcome. For the other predictor variables, while univariate analyses showed that young age, absence of symptom, and virgin lipomas correlated with better statistical PFS than older age, symptoms, and redo lipomas, these effects vanished with multivariate analyses. Cord-sac ratio stood alone as the only influential outcome predictor in multivariate analysis, with a 96.6% PFS for a low ratio of <30% and an 80.6% progression-free probability for a high ratio of >50%, and a 3-fold increase in recurrence hazard for high ratios (P = .0009). This suggested that all the individual effects of the other predictor variables could be reduced to whether a low cord-sac ratio could be achieved with total lipoma resection and placode reconstruction. Cord-sac ratio was the obvious factor that differentiated the outcomes between total and partial resection, the latter associated with a >90% chance of having a high cord-sac ratio.
Total and near-total resection of lipomas and complete reconstruction of the neural placode produced a much better long-term progression-free probability than partial resection and nonsurgical treatment. The perioperative complications for total resection were low and compared favorably with published results. A low postoperative cord-sac ratio and well-executed placode neurulation were strongly correlated with good outcome. The ideal preoperative patient profile with early disease stabilization and the best recurrence-free probability is an asymptomatic child less than 2 years without previous lipoma surgery. There are strong indications that partial resection in many cases produces worse scarring on the neural placode and worse prognosis than no surgery.