Independent and joint associations of nutritional status indicators with mortality risk among chronic hemodialysis patients in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS).J Ren Nutr. 2010 Jul; 20(4):224-34.JR
To consider the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommendation of using multiple nutritional measurements for patients on maintenance dialysis, we explored data for independent and joint associations of nutritional indicators with mortality risk among maintenance hemodialysis patients treated in 12 countries.
Dialysis units in seven European countries, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan.
We conducted a prospective cohort study of 40,950 patients from phases I to III of the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (1996-2008). Independent and joint effects (interactions) of nutritional indicators (serum creatinine, serum albumin, normalized protein catabolic rate, body mass index [BMI]) on mortality risk were assessed by Cox regression with adjustments for demographics, years on dialysis, and comorbidities.
Important variations in nutritional indicators were seen by country and patient characteristics. Poorer nutritional status assessed by each indicator was independently associated with higher mortality risk across regions. Significant multiplicative interactions (each p < or = 0.01) between indicators were also observed. For example, by using patients with serum creatinine 7.5-10.5 mg/dL and BMI 21-25 kg/m(2) as referent, BMI <21 kg/m(2) was associated with lower mortality risk among patients with creatinine >10.5 mg/dL (relative risk = 0.68) but with higher mortality risk among those with creatinine <7.5 mg/dL (relative risk = 1.38). The association of lower albumin concentration with higher mortality risk was stronger for patients with lower BMI or lower creatinine.
The joint effects of nutritional indicators on mortality indicate the need to use multiple measurements when assessing the nutritional status of hemodialysis patients.