Formation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection by-products from the chlorination of Microcystis aeruginosa.Water Res. 2010 Mar; 44(6):1934-40.WR
Formation of carbonaceous disinfection by-products (C-DBPs), including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloketones (HKs), chloral hydrate (CH), and nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs), including haloacetonitriles (HANs) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM) from chlorination of Microcystis aeruginosa, a blue-green algae, under different conditions was investigated. Factors evaluated include contact time, chlorine dosages, pH, temperature, ammonia concentrations and algae growth stages. Increased reaction time, chlorine dosage and temperature improved the formation of the relatively stable C-DBPs (e.g., THM, HAA, and CH) and TCNM. Formation of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) followed an increasing and then decreasing pattern with prolonged reaction time and increased chlorine dosages. pH affected DBP formation differently, with THM increasing, HKs decreasing, and other DBPs having maximum concentrations at certain pH values. The addition of ammonia significantly reduced the formation of most DBPs, but TCNM formation was not affected and 1,1-dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP) formation was higher with the addition of ammonia. Most DBPs increased as the growth period of algal cells increased. Chlorination of algal cells of higher organic nitrogen content generated higher concentrations of N-DBPs (e.g., HANs and TCNM) and CH, comparable DCAA concentration but much lower concentrations of other C-DBPs (e.g., THM, TCAA and HKs) than did natural organic matter (NOM).