Role of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in memory consolidation during the aging process of mice.Neuropeptides. 2010 Apr; 44(2):163-8.N
Under physiological conditions, elderly people present memory deficit associated with neuronal loss. This pattern is also associated with Alzheimer's disease but, in this case, in a dramatically intensified level. Kinin receptors have been involved in neurodegeneration and increase of amyloid-beta concentration, associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Considering these findings, this work evaluated the role of kinin receptors in memory consolidation during the aging process. Male C57Bl/6 (wt), knock-out B1 (koB1) or B2 (koB2) mice (3, 6, 12 and 18-month-old - mo; n=10 per group) were submitted to an acquisition session, reinforcement to learning (24h later: test 1) and final test (7days later: test 2), in an active avoidance apparatus, to evaluate memory. Conditioned avoidance responses (CAR, % of 50 trials) were registered. In acquisition sessions, similar CAR were obtained among age matched animals from all strains. However, a significant decrease in CAR was observed throughout the aging process (3mo: 8.8+/-2.3%; 6mo: 4.1+/-0.6%; 12mo: 2.2+/-0.6%, 18mo: 3.6+/-0.6%, P<0.01), indicating a reduction in the learning process. In test 1, as expected, memory retention increased significantly (P<0.05) in all 3- and 6-month-old animals as well as in 12-month-old-wt and 12-month-old-koB1 (P<0.01), compared to the training session. However, 12-month-old-koB2 and all 18-month-old animals did not show an increase in memory retention. In test 2, 3- and 6-month-old wt and koB1 mice of all ages showed a significant improvement in memory (P<0.05) compared to test 1. However, 12-month-old wt and koB2 mice of all ages showed no difference in memory retention. We suggest that, during the aging process, the B1 receptor could be involved in neurodegeneration and memory loss. Nevertheless, the B2 receptor is apparently acting as a neuroprotective factor.