Simultaneous determination of catecholamines, uric acid and ascorbic acid at physiological levels using poly(N-methylpyrrole)/Pd-nanoclusters sensor.Anal Biochem. 2010 May 01; 400(1):78-88.AB
An interesting electrochemical sensor has been constructed by the electrodeposition of palladium nanoclusters (Pd(nano)) on poly(N-methylpyrrole) (PMPy) film-coated platinum (Pt) electrode. Cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the properties of the modified electrode. It was demonstrated that the electroactivity of the modified electrode depends strongly on the electrosynthesis conditions of the PMPy film and Pd(nano). Moreover, the modified electrode exhibits strong electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of a mixture of dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA), and uric acid (UA) with obvious reduction of overpotentials. The simultaneous analysis of this mixture at conventional (Pt, gold [Au], and glassy carbon) electrodes usually struggles. However, three well-resolved oxidation peaks for AA, DA, and UA with large peak separations allow this modified electrode to individually or simultaneously analyze AA, DA, and UA by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) with good stability, sensitivity, and selectivity. This sensor is also ideal for the simultaneous analysis of AA, UA and either of epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE) or l-DOPA. Additionally, the sensor shows strong electrocatalytic activity towards acetaminophen (ACOP) and other organic compounds. The calibration curves for AA, DA, and UA were obtained in the ranges of 0.05 to 1mM, 0.1 to 10 microM, and 0.5 to 20 microM, respectively. The detection limits (signal/noise [S/N]=3) were 7 microM, 12 nM, and 27 nM for AA, DA, and UA, respectively. The practical application of the modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentrations of AA, DA, and UA in injection sample, human serum, and human urine samples, respectively, with satisfactory results. The reliability and stability of the modified electrode gave a good possibility for applying the technique to routine analysis of AA, DA, and UA in clinical tests.