Update on Cyclospora cayetanensis, a food-borne and waterborne parasite.Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010 Jan; 23(1):218-34.CM
The coccidian parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis is recognized as an emerging pathogen that causes protracted diarrhea in humans. The first cases of Cyclospora infection were reported in the late 1970s and were observed among expatriates and travelers in regions where infections are endemic. Since then, Cyclospora has been considered a cause of traveler's diarrhea. Epidemiological investigations were reported and examined in areas of endemicity even before the true identity of Cyclospora was elucidated. Cyclospora was fully characterized in the early 1990s, but it was not until the 1995 Cyclospora outbreak in the United States and Canada that it caught the attention of the public and physicians. The biology, clinical presentation, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and control of cyclosporiasis are reviewed, with a focus on diagnostic assays currently being used for clinical and environmental samples. Challenges and limitations in working with Cyclospora are also discussed.