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Effects of acidic water and aluminum exposure on gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit isoforms, enzyme activity, physiology and return rates in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).
Aquat Toxicol 2010; 97(3):250-9AT

Abstract

Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) is involved, through its role as a major driving force for electrochemical gradients, in a range of transmembrane transport processes. Maintenance of homeostasis in anadromous salmonids requires modulation of several gill ion secretory proteins as part of the preparatory adaptation and acclimation to marine life. Atlantic salmon smolts were exposed to combinations of low pH and inorganic aluminum (acid/Al(i)) in freshwater (FW) and were then transferred to seawater (SW) for studies of post-smolt performance. Gill mRNA levels of four NKA-alpha isoforms (alpha1a, alpha1b, alpha1c and alpha3) of the catalytic NKA subunit and NKA enzyme activity were measured. Moderate acid/Al treatment (MOD, pH 5.9+/-0.3, 15+/-9microgl(-1)Al(i)) prevented the FW preparatory increase in NKA activity observed in control (CON, pH 6.9+/-0.1, 8+/-3microgl(-1)Al(i)) smolts, while high acid/Al treatment (SEV, pH 5.6+/-0.2, 30+/-7microgl(-1)Al(i)) caused a rapid and persistent reduction in NKA activity. Correspondingly, a 3.3-fold increase in plasma glucose levels in the SEV groups concurrent with a decrease in plasma chloride levels suggest that acid/Al exposed fish were stressed and experienced problems maintaining ion homeostasis. Gill NKA activities in acid/Al exposed groups were re-established after 28 days in SW. Both long (9 days) and short-term (2.5 days) treatments had significant impact on isoform-specific Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit mRNA abundance in the FW period. Acid/Al exposed groups lacked the preparatory increases in all NKA-alpha isoform mRNA levels seen in the CON group, except for alpha1a. In contrast to the other isoforms measured, alpha1a mRNA abundance decreased sharply upon SW transfer, supporting the hypothesis of isozyme shifting as a mechanism of altering the gill from an ion absorbing to an ion excreting tissue during smoltification and SW exposure. Adult return rates to the Imsa river were significantly reduced both in short-term (78% of controls) and long-term (55% of controls) acid/Al exposures, emphasising the physiological and ecological consequences of acid/Al exposure during smoltification.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen High Technology Centre, Bergen, Norway. Tom.Nilsen@bio.uib.noNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20079944

Citation

Nilsen, Tom O., et al. "Effects of Acidic Water and Aluminum Exposure On Gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase Alpha-subunit Isoforms, Enzyme Activity, Physiology and Return Rates in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar L.)." Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), vol. 97, no. 3, 2010, pp. 250-9.
Nilsen TO, Ebbesson LO, Kverneland OG, et al. Effects of acidic water and aluminum exposure on gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit isoforms, enzyme activity, physiology and return rates in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquat Toxicol. 2010;97(3):250-9.
Nilsen, T. O., Ebbesson, L. O., Kverneland, O. G., Kroglund, F., Finstad, B., & Stefansson, S. O. (2010). Effects of acidic water and aluminum exposure on gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit isoforms, enzyme activity, physiology and return rates in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 97(3), pp. 250-9. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.12.001.
Nilsen TO, et al. Effects of Acidic Water and Aluminum Exposure On Gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase Alpha-subunit Isoforms, Enzyme Activity, Physiology and Return Rates in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar L.). Aquat Toxicol. 2010 May 5;97(3):250-9. PubMed PMID: 20079944.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of acidic water and aluminum exposure on gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit isoforms, enzyme activity, physiology and return rates in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). AU - Nilsen,Tom O, AU - Ebbesson,Lars O E, AU - Kverneland,Ole G, AU - Kroglund,Frode, AU - Finstad,Bengt, AU - Stefansson,Sigurd O, Y1 - 2009/12/04/ PY - 2009/04/30/received PY - 2009/11/28/revised PY - 2009/12/01/accepted PY - 2010/1/19/entrez PY - 2010/1/19/pubmed PY - 2010/7/21/medline SP - 250 EP - 9 JF - Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) JO - Aquat. Toxicol. VL - 97 IS - 3 N2 - Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) is involved, through its role as a major driving force for electrochemical gradients, in a range of transmembrane transport processes. Maintenance of homeostasis in anadromous salmonids requires modulation of several gill ion secretory proteins as part of the preparatory adaptation and acclimation to marine life. Atlantic salmon smolts were exposed to combinations of low pH and inorganic aluminum (acid/Al(i)) in freshwater (FW) and were then transferred to seawater (SW) for studies of post-smolt performance. Gill mRNA levels of four NKA-alpha isoforms (alpha1a, alpha1b, alpha1c and alpha3) of the catalytic NKA subunit and NKA enzyme activity were measured. Moderate acid/Al treatment (MOD, pH 5.9+/-0.3, 15+/-9microgl(-1)Al(i)) prevented the FW preparatory increase in NKA activity observed in control (CON, pH 6.9+/-0.1, 8+/-3microgl(-1)Al(i)) smolts, while high acid/Al treatment (SEV, pH 5.6+/-0.2, 30+/-7microgl(-1)Al(i)) caused a rapid and persistent reduction in NKA activity. Correspondingly, a 3.3-fold increase in plasma glucose levels in the SEV groups concurrent with a decrease in plasma chloride levels suggest that acid/Al exposed fish were stressed and experienced problems maintaining ion homeostasis. Gill NKA activities in acid/Al exposed groups were re-established after 28 days in SW. Both long (9 days) and short-term (2.5 days) treatments had significant impact on isoform-specific Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit mRNA abundance in the FW period. Acid/Al exposed groups lacked the preparatory increases in all NKA-alpha isoform mRNA levels seen in the CON group, except for alpha1a. In contrast to the other isoforms measured, alpha1a mRNA abundance decreased sharply upon SW transfer, supporting the hypothesis of isozyme shifting as a mechanism of altering the gill from an ion absorbing to an ion excreting tissue during smoltification and SW exposure. Adult return rates to the Imsa river were significantly reduced both in short-term (78% of controls) and long-term (55% of controls) acid/Al exposures, emphasising the physiological and ecological consequences of acid/Al exposure during smoltification. SN - 1879-1514 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20079944/Effects_of_acidic_water_and_aluminum_exposure_on_gill_Na_+__K_+__ATPase_alpha_subunit_isoforms_enzyme_activity_physiology_and_return_rates_in_Atlantic_salmon__Salmo_salar_L___ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0166-445X(09)00412-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -