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Constipation is relieved more by rye bread than wheat bread or laxatives without increased adverse gastrointestinal effects.
J Nutr. 2010 Mar; 140(3):534-41.JN

Abstract

Rye bread and lactobacilli modify the colonic environment and have the potential to relieve constipation and could be a safe and convenient alternative to laxatives. The effects of rye bread and cultured buttermilk with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bowel function and colon metabolism were investigated and compared with laxatives in 51 constipated adults. They were randomized to receive whole-grain rye bread (minimum 240 g/d), LGG (2 x 10(10) colony-forming units/d), whole-grain rye bread (minimum 240 g/d) + LGG (2 x 10(10) colony-forming units/d), white wheat bread (maximum 192 g/d), or laxatives (as usual for a participant) for 3 wk. Participants recorded their dietary habits, bowel function, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Fecal weight, pH, SCFA and bacterial enzyme activities, total intestinal transit time (TITT), and breath hydrogen were determined. Rye bread, compared with white wheat bread, shortened TITT by 23% (P = 0.040), increased weekly defecations by 1.4 (P = 0.014), softened feces [odds ratio (OR) 3.98; P = 0.037], eased defecation (OR 5.08; P = 0.018), increased fecal acetic acid and butyric acid contents by 24% (P = 0.044) and 63% (P <0.001), respectively, and reduced fecal beta-glucuronidase activity by 23% (P = 0.014). Compared with laxatives, rye bread reduced TITT by 41% (P = 0.006), fecal beta-glucuronidase activity by 38% (P = 0.033), and fecal pH by 0.31 units (P = 0.006). LGG did not relieve constipation or significantly affect colonic metabolism. Gastrointestinal adverse effects did not significantly differ among the study groups. In conclusion, rye bread relieves mild constipation and improves colonic metabolism compared with white wheat bread and commonly used laxatives without increasing gastrointestinal adverse effects.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Biomedicine, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. reetta.holma@helsinki.fiNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20089780

Citation

Holma, Reetta, et al. "Constipation Is Relieved More By Rye Bread Than Wheat Bread or Laxatives Without Increased Adverse Gastrointestinal Effects." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 140, no. 3, 2010, pp. 534-41.
Holma R, Hongisto SM, Saxelin M, et al. Constipation is relieved more by rye bread than wheat bread or laxatives without increased adverse gastrointestinal effects. J Nutr. 2010;140(3):534-41.
Holma, R., Hongisto, S. M., Saxelin, M., & Korpela, R. (2010). Constipation is relieved more by rye bread than wheat bread or laxatives without increased adverse gastrointestinal effects. The Journal of Nutrition, 140(3), 534-41. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.109.118570
Holma R, et al. Constipation Is Relieved More By Rye Bread Than Wheat Bread or Laxatives Without Increased Adverse Gastrointestinal Effects. J Nutr. 2010;140(3):534-41. PubMed PMID: 20089780.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Constipation is relieved more by rye bread than wheat bread or laxatives without increased adverse gastrointestinal effects. AU - Holma,Reetta, AU - Hongisto,Sanna-Maria, AU - Saxelin,Maija, AU - Korpela,Riitta, Y1 - 2010/01/20/ PY - 2010/1/22/entrez PY - 2010/1/22/pubmed PY - 2010/3/26/medline SP - 534 EP - 41 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J Nutr VL - 140 IS - 3 N2 - Rye bread and lactobacilli modify the colonic environment and have the potential to relieve constipation and could be a safe and convenient alternative to laxatives. The effects of rye bread and cultured buttermilk with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bowel function and colon metabolism were investigated and compared with laxatives in 51 constipated adults. They were randomized to receive whole-grain rye bread (minimum 240 g/d), LGG (2 x 10(10) colony-forming units/d), whole-grain rye bread (minimum 240 g/d) + LGG (2 x 10(10) colony-forming units/d), white wheat bread (maximum 192 g/d), or laxatives (as usual for a participant) for 3 wk. Participants recorded their dietary habits, bowel function, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Fecal weight, pH, SCFA and bacterial enzyme activities, total intestinal transit time (TITT), and breath hydrogen were determined. Rye bread, compared with white wheat bread, shortened TITT by 23% (P = 0.040), increased weekly defecations by 1.4 (P = 0.014), softened feces [odds ratio (OR) 3.98; P = 0.037], eased defecation (OR 5.08; P = 0.018), increased fecal acetic acid and butyric acid contents by 24% (P = 0.044) and 63% (P <0.001), respectively, and reduced fecal beta-glucuronidase activity by 23% (P = 0.014). Compared with laxatives, rye bread reduced TITT by 41% (P = 0.006), fecal beta-glucuronidase activity by 38% (P = 0.033), and fecal pH by 0.31 units (P = 0.006). LGG did not relieve constipation or significantly affect colonic metabolism. Gastrointestinal adverse effects did not significantly differ among the study groups. In conclusion, rye bread relieves mild constipation and improves colonic metabolism compared with white wheat bread and commonly used laxatives without increasing gastrointestinal adverse effects. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20089780/Constipation_is_relieved_more_by_rye_bread_than_wheat_bread_or_laxatives_without_increased_adverse_gastrointestinal_effects_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/jn.109.118570 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -