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Effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in preventing gastroenteritis in the United States.
Pediatrics. 2010 Feb; 125(2):e208-13.Ped

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

In clinical trials, the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) was efficacious in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) and related health care encounters. We assessed the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of RV5 among US infants during the first 2 rotavirus seasons after vaccine licensure.

METHODS

Using a large, national, health insurance claim database, we monitored 2 cohorts of infants (infants who received 3 doses of RV5 and a concurrent group of infants who received 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine but did not receive RV5) through the 2007 and 2008 rotavirus seasons (January 1 to May 31), to identify cases of RGE and all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) resulting in medical care encounters. We estimated the VE in reducing hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) and physician office visits, and health care resource utilization, as measured by days and costs of hospitalizations and ED visits.

RESULTS

A total of 33 140 RV5-vaccinated infants and 26 167 infants in the concurrent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine cohort were included in the analysis. The VE against RGE (hospitalization and ED) was 100% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 87%-100%), whereas the VE against AGE was 59% (95% CI: 47%-68%). In the outpatient setting, the VE against RGE and AGE was 96% (95% CI: 76%-100%) and 28% (95% CI: 22%-33%), respectively. There was a complete (100%) reduction in RGE hospitalization and ED visit days and a 100% reduction in costs. RV5 was associated with a 66% decrease in AGE-related hospitalization and ED visit days and a 74% reduction in costs.

CONCLUSIONS

In this first nationwide study evaluating VE under conditions of routine use, RV5 was highly effective in preventing RGE and AGE and in reducing health care resource utilization. Further research is needed to assess VE with an incomplete rotavirus vaccination regimen.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Drug Safety, Department of Epidemiology, 950 Winter St, Suite 3800, Waltham, MA 02451, USA. florence.wang@i3drugsafety.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20100757

Citation

Wang, Florence T., et al. "Effectiveness of the Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine in Preventing Gastroenteritis in the United States." Pediatrics, vol. 125, no. 2, 2010, pp. e208-13.
Wang FT, Mast TC, Glass RJ, et al. Effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in preventing gastroenteritis in the United States. Pediatrics. 2010;125(2):e208-13.
Wang, F. T., Mast, T. C., Glass, R. J., Loughlin, J., & Seeger, J. D. (2010). Effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in preventing gastroenteritis in the United States. Pediatrics, 125(2), e208-13. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-1246
Wang FT, et al. Effectiveness of the Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine in Preventing Gastroenteritis in the United States. Pediatrics. 2010;125(2):e208-13. PubMed PMID: 20100757.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in preventing gastroenteritis in the United States. AU - Wang,Florence T, AU - Mast,T Christopher, AU - Glass,Roberta J, AU - Loughlin,Jeanne, AU - Seeger,John D, Y1 - 2010/01/25/ PY - 2010/1/27/entrez PY - 2010/1/27/pubmed PY - 2010/3/5/medline SP - e208 EP - 13 JF - Pediatrics JO - Pediatrics VL - 125 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: In clinical trials, the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) was efficacious in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) and related health care encounters. We assessed the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of RV5 among US infants during the first 2 rotavirus seasons after vaccine licensure. METHODS: Using a large, national, health insurance claim database, we monitored 2 cohorts of infants (infants who received 3 doses of RV5 and a concurrent group of infants who received 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine but did not receive RV5) through the 2007 and 2008 rotavirus seasons (January 1 to May 31), to identify cases of RGE and all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) resulting in medical care encounters. We estimated the VE in reducing hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) and physician office visits, and health care resource utilization, as measured by days and costs of hospitalizations and ED visits. RESULTS: A total of 33 140 RV5-vaccinated infants and 26 167 infants in the concurrent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine cohort were included in the analysis. The VE against RGE (hospitalization and ED) was 100% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 87%-100%), whereas the VE against AGE was 59% (95% CI: 47%-68%). In the outpatient setting, the VE against RGE and AGE was 96% (95% CI: 76%-100%) and 28% (95% CI: 22%-33%), respectively. There was a complete (100%) reduction in RGE hospitalization and ED visit days and a 100% reduction in costs. RV5 was associated with a 66% decrease in AGE-related hospitalization and ED visit days and a 74% reduction in costs. CONCLUSIONS: In this first nationwide study evaluating VE under conditions of routine use, RV5 was highly effective in preventing RGE and AGE and in reducing health care resource utilization. Further research is needed to assess VE with an incomplete rotavirus vaccination regimen. SN - 1098-4275 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20100757/Effectiveness_of_the_pentavalent_rotavirus_vaccine_in_preventing_gastroenteritis_in_the_United_States_ L2 - http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=20100757 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -