Endoscopic sclerotherapy for control of bleeding varices in children.Am J Gastroenterol. 1991 Apr; 86(4):472-6.AJ
Thirty-three children with esophageal varices due to portal hypertension underwent injection sclerotherapy over a period of 6 yr. Thirty-one completed the sclerotherapy course, and the varices were eradicated in all. In nine, the procedure was performed as an emergency because of continued bleeding and, in each case, a gastric fundal varix was the source of the blood loss. Sclerotherapy successfully controlled the bleeding in four of these, whereas five required surgical underrunning of the fundal varix. After surgery, these five continued sclerotherapy until the esophageal varices were eradicated. Complications included transient pyrexia (39%), retrosternal discomfort (30%), esophageal ulceration (18%), and esophageal stricture (12%). Rebleeding before initial eradication of the varices occurred in 12 patients but, thereafter, was very uncommon and always small in amount. Esophageal varices recurred after initial eradication in 33% of cases but were easily sclerosed with further injections. This study demonstrates that sclerotherapy is effective in reducing bleeding frequency in children with portal hypertension, but emphasizes the need for regular follow-up endoscopy after initial eradication of esophageal varices.