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Hippocampal plasticity in response to exercise in schizophrenia.

Abstract

CONTEXT

Hippocampal volume is lower than expected in patients with schizophrenia; however, whether this represents a fixed deficit is uncertain. Exercise is a stimulus to hippocampal plasticity.

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether hippocampal volume would increase with exercise in humans and whether this effect would be related to improved aerobic fitness.

DESIGN

Randomized controlled study.

SETTING

Patients attending a day hospital program or an outpatient clinic.

PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS

Male patients with chronic schizophrenia and matched healthy subjects.

INTERVENTIONS

Aerobic exercise training (cycling) and playing table football (control group) for a period of 3 months.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Magnetic resonance imaging of the hippocampus. Secondary outcome measures were magnetic resonance spectroscopy, neuropsychological (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Corsi block-tapping test), and clinical (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) features.

RESULTS

Following exercise training, relative hippocampal volume increased significantly in patients (12%) and healthy subjects (16%), with no change in the nonexercise group of patients (-1%). Changes in hippocampal volume in the exercise group were correlated with improvements in aerobic fitness measured by change in maximum oxygen consumption (r = 0.71; P = .003). In the schizophrenia exercise group (but not the controls), change in hippocampal volume was associated with a 35% increase in the N-acetylaspartate to creatine ratio in the hippocampus. Finally, improvement in test scores for short-term memory in the combined exercise and nonexercise schizophrenia group was correlated with change in hippocampal volume (r = 0.51; P < .05).

CONCLUSION

These results indicate that in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia hippocampal volume is plastic in response to aerobic exercise.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Psychiatry, The Saarland University Hospital, Homburg, Germany. pajonk@klinik-dr-fontheim.de

    , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    Archives of general psychiatry 67:2 2010 Feb pg 133-43

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aspartic Acid
    Chronic Disease
    Cognition Disorders
    Exercise
    Hippocampus
    Humans
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    Male
    Neuronal Plasticity
    Neuropsychological Tests
    Schizophrenia

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    20124113

    Citation

    Pajonk, Frank-Gerald, et al. "Hippocampal Plasticity in Response to Exercise in Schizophrenia." Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 67, no. 2, 2010, pp. 133-43.
    Pajonk FG, Wobrock T, Gruber O, et al. Hippocampal plasticity in response to exercise in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(2):133-43.
    Pajonk, F. G., Wobrock, T., Gruber, O., Scherk, H., Berner, D., Kaizl, I., ... Falkai, P. (2010). Hippocampal plasticity in response to exercise in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(2), pp. 133-43. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.193.
    Pajonk FG, et al. Hippocampal Plasticity in Response to Exercise in Schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(2):133-43. PubMed PMID: 20124113.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Hippocampal plasticity in response to exercise in schizophrenia. AU - Pajonk,Frank-Gerald, AU - Wobrock,Thomas, AU - Gruber,Oliver, AU - Scherk,Harald, AU - Berner,Dorothea, AU - Kaizl,Inge, AU - Kierer,Astrid, AU - Müller,Stephanie, AU - Oest,Martin, AU - Meyer,Tim, AU - Backens,Martin, AU - Schneider-Axmann,Thomas, AU - Thornton,Allen E, AU - Honer,William G, AU - Falkai,Peter, PY - 2010/2/4/entrez PY - 2010/2/4/pubmed PY - 2010/3/11/medline SP - 133 EP - 43 JF - Archives of general psychiatry JO - Arch. Gen. Psychiatry VL - 67 IS - 2 N2 - CONTEXT: Hippocampal volume is lower than expected in patients with schizophrenia; however, whether this represents a fixed deficit is uncertain. Exercise is a stimulus to hippocampal plasticity. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hippocampal volume would increase with exercise in humans and whether this effect would be related to improved aerobic fitness. DESIGN: Randomized controlled study. SETTING: Patients attending a day hospital program or an outpatient clinic. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Male patients with chronic schizophrenia and matched healthy subjects. INTERVENTIONS: Aerobic exercise training (cycling) and playing table football (control group) for a period of 3 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Magnetic resonance imaging of the hippocampus. Secondary outcome measures were magnetic resonance spectroscopy, neuropsychological (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Corsi block-tapping test), and clinical (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) features. RESULTS: Following exercise training, relative hippocampal volume increased significantly in patients (12%) and healthy subjects (16%), with no change in the nonexercise group of patients (-1%). Changes in hippocampal volume in the exercise group were correlated with improvements in aerobic fitness measured by change in maximum oxygen consumption (r = 0.71; P = .003). In the schizophrenia exercise group (but not the controls), change in hippocampal volume was associated with a 35% increase in the N-acetylaspartate to creatine ratio in the hippocampus. Finally, improvement in test scores for short-term memory in the combined exercise and nonexercise schizophrenia group was correlated with change in hippocampal volume (r = 0.51; P < .05). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia hippocampal volume is plastic in response to aerobic exercise. SN - 1538-3636 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20124113/Hippocampal_plasticity_in_response_to_exercise_in_schizophrenia_ L2 - http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&amp;PAGE=linkout&amp;SEARCH=20124113.ui DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -