Bumetanide alleviates epileptogenic and neurotoxic effects of sevoflurane in neonatal rat brain.Anesthesiology. 2010 Mar; 112(3):567-75.A
We tested the hypothesis that in newborn rats, sevoflurane may cause seizures, neurotoxicity, and impairment in synaptic plasticity-effects that may be diminished by the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 1 inhibitor, bumetanide.
Electroencephalography, activated caspase-3, and hippocampal long-term potentiation were measured in rats exposed to 2.1% sevoflurane for 0.5-6 h at postnatal days 4-17 (P4-P17).
Arterial blood gas samples drawn at a sevoflurane concentration of 2.1% showed no evidence of either hypoxia or hypoventilation in spontaneously breathing rats. Higher doses of sevoflurane (e.g., 2.9%) caused respiratory depression. During anesthesia maintenance, the electroencephalography exhibited distinctive episodes of epileptic seizures in 40% of P4-P8 rats. Such seizure-like activity was not detected during anesthesia maintenance in P10-P17 rats. Emergence from 3 h of anesthesia with sevoflurane resulted in tonic/clonic seizures in some P10-P17 rats but not in P4-P8 rats. Bumetanide (5 micromol/kg, intraperitoneally) significantly decreased seizures in P4-P9 rats but did not affect the emergence seizures in P10-P17 rats. Anesthesia of P4 rats with sevoflurane for 6 h caused a significant increase in activated caspase-3 and impairment of long-term potentiation induction measured at 1 and 14-17 days after exposure to sevoflurane, respectively. Pretreatment of P4 rats with bumetanide nearly abolished the increase in activated caspase-3 but did not alleviate impairment of long-term potentiation.
These results support the possibility that excitatory output of sevoflurane-potentiated gamma-aminobutyric acid type A/glycine systems may contribute to epileptogenic and neurotoxic effects in early postnatal rats.