Oxidative stress-enhanced SUMOylation and aggregation of ataxin-1: Implication of JNK pathway.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Mar 05; 393(2):280-5.BB
Although the polyglutamine protein ataxin-1 is modified by SUMO at multiple sites, the functions of such modification or how it is regulated are still unknown. Here we report that SUMO-1 or Ubc9 over-expression stimulated the aggregation of ataxin-1 and that oxidative stress, such as hydrogen peroxide treatment, further enhanced SUMO conjugation and aggregation of ataxin-1. Accordingly, co-treatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine attenuated the effect of oxidative stress. Ataxin-1, which can activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway by itself, strongly associated with apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) while not interacting with JNK. Finally, treatment of JNK-specific inhibitor caused a reduction in the oxidant-enhanced SUMOylation and aggregation of ataxin-1. Together these results indicate that SUMO modification of ataxin-1 promotes the aggregation of ataxin-1 and that oxidative stress and JNK pathway play roles in this process.