Ondansetron-loaded chitosan microspheres for nasal antiemetic drug delivery: an alternative approach to oral and parenteral routes.Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2010 Jul; 36(7):806-13.DD
The aim of this study was to develop chitosan microspheres for nasal delivery of ondansetron hydrochloride (OND).
Microspheres were prepared with spray-drying method using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinking agent. Microspheres were characterized in terms of morphology, particle size, zeta potential, production yield, drug content, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release.
All microspheres were spherical in shape with smooth surface and positively charged. Microspheres had also high encapsulation efficiency and the suitable particle size for nasal administration. In vitro studies indicated that all crosslinked microspheres had a significant burst effect, and sustained drug release pattern was observed until 24 hours following burst drug release. Nasal absorption of OND from crosslinked chitosan microspheres was evaluated in rats, and pharmacokinetic parameters of OND calculated from nasal microsphere administration were compared with those of both nasal and parenteral administration of aqueous solutions of OND. In vivo data also supported that OND-loaded microspheres were also able to attain a sustained plasma profile and significantly larger area under the curve values with respect to nasal aqueous solution of OND.
Based on in vitro and in vivo data, it could be concluded that crosslinked chitosan microspheres are considered as a nasal delivery system of OND.