Loss-of-function ENPP1 mutations cause both generalized arterial calcification of infancy and autosomal-recessive hypophosphatemic rickets.Am J Hum Genet. 2010 Feb 12; 86(2):267-72.AJ
The analysis of rare genetic disorders affecting phosphate homeostasis led to the identification of several proteins that are essential for the renal regulation of phosphate homeostasis; for example, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D synthesis. Here, we report presumable loss-of-function mutations in the ENPP1 gene (ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase) in members of four families affected with hypophosphatemic rickets. We provide evidence for the conclusion that ENPP1 is the fourth gene-in addition to PHEX, FGF23, and DMP1-that, if mutated, causes hypophosphatemic rickets resulting from elevated FGF23 levels. Surprisingly, ENPP1 loss-of-function mutations have previously been described in generalized arterial calcification of infancy, suggesting an as yet elusive mechanism that balances arterial calcification with bone mineralization.