On-line combination of single-drop liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction with capillary electrophoresis for sample cleanup and preconcentration: a simple and efficient approach to determining trace analyte in real matrices.J Chromatogr A. 2010 Mar 12; 1217(11):1856-61.JC
In order to improve the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and overcome the deficiency of commercial CE instruments in handling complex matrices directly, we proposed a novel technique which combined single-drop liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (SD-LLLME) with CE on-line. In this technique, SD-LLLME was realized using a commercial CE instrument and, to further concentrate the target analyte, large-volume sample stacking combined sweeping without polarity switching was utilized. Even though without agitating the donor phase in the extraction process, the model compound, adenine was enriched 550-fold in only 10 min. The enrichment factors were 760 and 1030 when the extraction time was extended to 30 and 60 min, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of adenine were 5.24% and 2.29% for peak area and migration time, respectively, which indicated that this method was much more reproducible compared to the existing methods that combined sample-preparation strategies with CE. In addition, this approach was selective while cleaning up target analyte. These mentioned advantages allowed the developed method to be an attractive approach to determining trace target compounds in complex real samples.