Antihyperlipidemic activity of 3-hydroxymethyl xylitol, a novel antidiabetic compound isolated from Casearia esculenta (Roxb.) root, in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2010 Mar-Apr; 24(2):95-101.JB
Casearia esculenta root (Roxb.) is widely used in traditional system of medicine to treat diabetes in India. An active compound, 3-hydroxymethyl xylitol (3-HMX), has been isolated, and its optimum dose has been determined in a short duration study and patented. In addition, the long-term effect of 3-HMX in type 2 diabetic rats on carbohydrate metabolism was investigated, and its antihyperglycemic effect was shown previously (Chandramohan et al., Eur J Pharmacol 2008;590:437-443). In this study we investigated the effect of 3-HMX on plasma and tissue lipid profiles in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult male albino rats of the Wistar strain, weighing 180-200 g, by administration of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg of body weight) intraperitoneally. The normal and diabetic rats were treated with 3-HMX (40 mg/kg BW/day) for 45 days. The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids were assayed in the plasma besides lipoprotein-cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C)) and tissues (liver, kidney, heart, and brain). Total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, and phospholipid (LDL-C and VLDL-C in plasma only) levels increased in plasma and tissues significantly, whereas plasma HDL-C significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Treatment with 3-HMX or glibenclamide reversed the above-mentioned changes and improved toward normalcy. Histological study of liver also confirmed the biochemical findings. Thus administration of 3-HMX is able to reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia related to the risk of diabetes mellitus.