Deficits of visuospatial attention with reflexive orienting induced by eye-gazed cues in children with developmental coordination disorder in the lower extremities: an event-related potential study.Res Dev Disabil. 2010 May-Jun; 31(3):642-55.RD
The present study aims to investigate and compare the behavioral performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing (TD) children when performing the visuospatial attention task with reflexive orienting. Thirty children with DCD and 30 TD children were recruited and presented with central eye-gazed cues. The children needed to detect and respond to laterally presented reaction signals preceded by centrally presented non-predictive directional and non-directional eye-gazed cues, which directed them to attend covertly to the right or left field location, or straight ahead, via stepping on pedals with their bilateral lower limbs, while brain ERPs were concurrently recorded. The behavioral data showed that children with DCD responded slowly and exhibited a deficit in inhibitory control capacity as compared to TD children. In terms of electrophysiological characteristics, children with DCD showed distinct modulatory effects upon longer N2 and P3 latencies, smaller P3 amplitude, an elongated interval between N2 and the motor response (N2 latency-RT), and small areas on Contingent Negative Variation (CNV). The behavioral and ERP data suggest that children with DCD could have deficits in the ventral attention network and the mechanisms on the inhibitory control difficulty, when performing such a task, could be a slower response inhibitory process and stimulus classification speed, less ability in interhemispheric and cognitive-to-motor transfer speed, and less mature abilities with regard to anticipatorily executive and motor preparatory processes.