Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: a novel agent for reducing cardiovascular risk?Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2010; 8(5):720-30CV
Vitamin D deficiency is a well-established risk factor for bone disease. Emerging data suggest a pleiotropic role of this agent in a variety of functions in humans. Epidemiological studies indicate an inverse association between vitamin D deficiency and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as individual cardiometabolic risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the atherosclerotic process. This review considers current data regarding the role of vitamin D deficiency in the development of CVD and addresses the effect of supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes.