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Implicit and explicit behavioral tendencies in male and female depression.
Psychiatry Res. 2010 May 15; 177(1-2):124-30.PR

Abstract

Emotional facial expressions are the most salient cues in social life. Successful social interaction is based on correct recognition, interpretation and appropriate reaction to these cues. However, social skill deficits are among the most debilitating symptoms of depression, leading to social withdrawal and aggravating the disorder in various domains. We used an implicit joystick task to measure automatic behavioral tendencies in response to evoked facial expressions (anger, fear, sadness, happiness and neutral). Additionally, we implemented a rating procedure to assess explicit approach and avoidance reactions to these social stimuli. Our sample consisted of 24 depressed patients and 24 healthy controls. Data analysis indicated that depressed patients appear to understand the expression depicted on the emotional faces but react differently to these social cues. Female patients displayed stronger avoidance tendencies in the explicit condition whereas social withdrawal was less pronounced in the implicit condition. Our data suggest that a cognitive bias negatively influences the unimpaired automatic reactions to emotional expressions in depressed patients, and this bias may result in the characteristic social withdrawal.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany. eseidel@ukaacehn.deNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20199811

Citation

Seidel, Eva-Maria, et al. "Implicit and Explicit Behavioral Tendencies in Male and Female Depression." Psychiatry Research, vol. 177, no. 1-2, 2010, pp. 124-30.
Seidel EM, Habel U, Finkelmeyer A, et al. Implicit and explicit behavioral tendencies in male and female depression. Psychiatry Res. 2010;177(1-2):124-30.
Seidel, E. M., Habel, U., Finkelmeyer, A., Schneider, F., Gur, R. C., & Derntl, B. (2010). Implicit and explicit behavioral tendencies in male and female depression. Psychiatry Research, 177(1-2), 124-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2010.02.001
Seidel EM, et al. Implicit and Explicit Behavioral Tendencies in Male and Female Depression. Psychiatry Res. 2010 May 15;177(1-2):124-30. PubMed PMID: 20199811.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Implicit and explicit behavioral tendencies in male and female depression. AU - Seidel,Eva-Maria, AU - Habel,Ute, AU - Finkelmeyer,Andreas, AU - Schneider,Frank, AU - Gur,Ruben C, AU - Derntl,Birgit, Y1 - 2010/03/03/ PY - 2009/11/11/received PY - 2010/01/20/revised PY - 2010/02/02/accepted PY - 2010/3/5/entrez PY - 2010/3/5/pubmed PY - 2010/6/23/medline SP - 124 EP - 30 JF - Psychiatry research JO - Psychiatry Res VL - 177 IS - 1-2 N2 - Emotional facial expressions are the most salient cues in social life. Successful social interaction is based on correct recognition, interpretation and appropriate reaction to these cues. However, social skill deficits are among the most debilitating symptoms of depression, leading to social withdrawal and aggravating the disorder in various domains. We used an implicit joystick task to measure automatic behavioral tendencies in response to evoked facial expressions (anger, fear, sadness, happiness and neutral). Additionally, we implemented a rating procedure to assess explicit approach and avoidance reactions to these social stimuli. Our sample consisted of 24 depressed patients and 24 healthy controls. Data analysis indicated that depressed patients appear to understand the expression depicted on the emotional faces but react differently to these social cues. Female patients displayed stronger avoidance tendencies in the explicit condition whereas social withdrawal was less pronounced in the implicit condition. Our data suggest that a cognitive bias negatively influences the unimpaired automatic reactions to emotional expressions in depressed patients, and this bias may result in the characteristic social withdrawal. SN - 0165-1781 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20199811/Implicit_and_explicit_behavioral_tendencies_in_male_and_female_depression_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165-1781(10)00047-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -