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Hypovitaminosis D and K are highly prevalent and independent of overall malnutrition in the institutionalized elderly.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010; 19(1):49-56.AP

Abstract

There have been methodological problems for studying hypovitaminosis D and K in the elderly. First, studies were done either by evaluating food intake or measuring their circulating levels, but rarely by both in Japan. In this paper, vitamin D and K intakes and their circulating levels were simultaneously determined. Second issue is whether hypovitaminosis D and K are independent of general malnutrition, prevalent in the elderly. We tried to statistically discriminate them by principal component analysis (PCA). Fifty institutionalized elderly were evaluated for their circulating 25 hydroxy-vitamin D (25OH-D), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), phylloquinone (PK), menaquinone-7 (MK-7) levels, and their food intake. Although average vitamin D intake (7.0 microg/day) exceeded the Japanese Adequate Intake (AI) of 5.0 microg/day, average serum 25OH-D concentration was in the hypovitaminosis D range (11.1 ng/mL). Median vitamin K intake was 168 microg/day, approximately 2.5 times as high as AI for vitamin K. Nevertheless, plasma PK and MK-7 concentrations were far lower than those of healthy Japanese elderly over 70 years old. PCA yielded four components; each representing overall nutritional, vitamin K2, vitamin D, and vitamin K1 status, respectively. Since these components are independent of each other, vitamin D- and K-deficiency in these subjects could not be explained by overall malnutrition alone. In summary, institutionalized elderly had a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and K, and the simultaneous determination of their circulating level and dietary intake is mandatory in such studies. PCA would yield fruitful results for eliminating the interference by confounders in a cross-sectional study.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyoto Women's University, 35, Imakumano-kitahiyoshicho, Higashiyama 605-8501 Japan.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20199987

Citation

Kuwabara, Akiko, et al. "Hypovitaminosis D and K Are Highly Prevalent and Independent of Overall Malnutrition in the Institutionalized Elderly." Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 19, no. 1, 2010, pp. 49-56.
Kuwabara A, Himeno M, Tsugawa N, et al. Hypovitaminosis D and K are highly prevalent and independent of overall malnutrition in the institutionalized elderly. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(1):49-56.
Kuwabara, A., Himeno, M., Tsugawa, N., Kamao, M., Fujii, M., Kawai, N., Fukuda, M., Ogawa, Y., Kido, S., Okano, T., & Tanaka, K. (2010). Hypovitaminosis D and K are highly prevalent and independent of overall malnutrition in the institutionalized elderly. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 19(1), 49-56.
Kuwabara A, et al. Hypovitaminosis D and K Are Highly Prevalent and Independent of Overall Malnutrition in the Institutionalized Elderly. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(1):49-56. PubMed PMID: 20199987.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hypovitaminosis D and K are highly prevalent and independent of overall malnutrition in the institutionalized elderly. AU - Kuwabara,Akiko, AU - Himeno,Masako, AU - Tsugawa,Naoko, AU - Kamao,Maya, AU - Fujii,Minori, AU - Kawai,Nobuko, AU - Fukuda,Miyuki, AU - Ogawa,Yoko, AU - Kido,Shoko, AU - Okano,Toshio, AU - Tanaka,Kiyoshi, PY - 2010/3/5/entrez PY - 2010/3/5/pubmed PY - 2010/5/12/medline SP - 49 EP - 56 JF - Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition JO - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - There have been methodological problems for studying hypovitaminosis D and K in the elderly. First, studies were done either by evaluating food intake or measuring their circulating levels, but rarely by both in Japan. In this paper, vitamin D and K intakes and their circulating levels were simultaneously determined. Second issue is whether hypovitaminosis D and K are independent of general malnutrition, prevalent in the elderly. We tried to statistically discriminate them by principal component analysis (PCA). Fifty institutionalized elderly were evaluated for their circulating 25 hydroxy-vitamin D (25OH-D), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), phylloquinone (PK), menaquinone-7 (MK-7) levels, and their food intake. Although average vitamin D intake (7.0 microg/day) exceeded the Japanese Adequate Intake (AI) of 5.0 microg/day, average serum 25OH-D concentration was in the hypovitaminosis D range (11.1 ng/mL). Median vitamin K intake was 168 microg/day, approximately 2.5 times as high as AI for vitamin K. Nevertheless, plasma PK and MK-7 concentrations were far lower than those of healthy Japanese elderly over 70 years old. PCA yielded four components; each representing overall nutritional, vitamin K2, vitamin D, and vitamin K1 status, respectively. Since these components are independent of each other, vitamin D- and K-deficiency in these subjects could not be explained by overall malnutrition alone. In summary, institutionalized elderly had a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and K, and the simultaneous determination of their circulating level and dietary intake is mandatory in such studies. PCA would yield fruitful results for eliminating the interference by confounders in a cross-sectional study. SN - 0964-7058 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20199987/Hypovitaminosis_D_and_K_are_highly_prevalent_and_independent_of_overall_malnutrition_in_the_institutionalized_elderly_ L2 - http://apjcn.nhri.org.tw/server/APJCN/19/1/49.pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -