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Comparison of electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for multi-residue analysis of biocides, UV-filters and benzothiazoles in aqueous matrices and activated sludge by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A. 2010 Apr 02; 1217(14):2088-103.JC

Abstract

This paper describes the development of a multi-residue method for the determination of 36 emerging organic pollutants (26 biocides, 5 UV-filters and 5 benzothiazoles) in raw and treated wastewater, activated sludge and surface water using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The target analytes were enriched from water samples adjusted to pH 6 by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on Oasis HLB 200mg cartridges and eluted with a mixture of methanol and acetone (60/40, v/v). Extraction of freeze-dried sludge samples was accomplished by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using a mixture of methanol and water (50/50, v/v) as extraction solvent followed by SPE. LC-tandem MS detection was compared using electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive and negative ionization mode. ESI exhibited strong ion suppression for most target analytes, while APCI was generally less susceptible to ion suppression but partially leading to ion enhancement of up to a factor of 10. In general, matrix effects could be compensated using stable isotope-labeled surrogate standards, indicated by relative recoveries ranging from 70% to 130%. In wastewater, activated sludge and surface water up to 33 analytes were detected. Maximum concentrations up to 5.1 and 3.9mugL(-1) were found in raw wastewater for the water-soluble UV-filters benzophenone-4 (BZP-4) and phenylbenz-imidazole sulfonic acid (PBSA), respectively. For the first time, the anti-dandruff climbazole was detected in raw wastewater and in activated sludge with concentrations as high as 1.4 microg L(-1) and 1.2 microg gTSS(-1), respectively. Activated sludge is obviously a sink for four benzothiazoles and two isothiazolones, as concentrations were detected in activated sludge between 120 ng gTSS(-1) (2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, OIT) to 330 ng gTSS(-1) (benzothiazole-2-sulfonic acid, BTSA).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, D-56068 Koblenz, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20202641

Citation

Wick, Arne, et al. "Comparison of Electrospray Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization for Multi-residue Analysis of Biocides, UV-filters and Benzothiazoles in Aqueous Matrices and Activated Sludge By Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry." Journal of Chromatography. A, vol. 1217, no. 14, 2010, pp. 2088-103.
Wick A, Fink G, Ternes TA. Comparison of electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for multi-residue analysis of biocides, UV-filters and benzothiazoles in aqueous matrices and activated sludge by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217(14):2088-103.
Wick, A., Fink, G., & Ternes, T. A. (2010). Comparison of electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for multi-residue analysis of biocides, UV-filters and benzothiazoles in aqueous matrices and activated sludge by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1217(14), 2088-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2010.01.079
Wick A, Fink G, Ternes TA. Comparison of Electrospray Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization for Multi-residue Analysis of Biocides, UV-filters and Benzothiazoles in Aqueous Matrices and Activated Sludge By Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2010 Apr 2;1217(14):2088-103. PubMed PMID: 20202641.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparison of electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for multi-residue analysis of biocides, UV-filters and benzothiazoles in aqueous matrices and activated sludge by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. AU - Wick,Arne, AU - Fink,Guido, AU - Ternes,Thomas A, Y1 - 2010/02/04/ PY - 2009/10/07/received PY - 2010/01/21/revised PY - 2010/01/27/accepted PY - 2010/3/6/entrez PY - 2010/3/6/pubmed PY - 2010/6/19/medline SP - 2088 EP - 103 JF - Journal of chromatography. A JO - J Chromatogr A VL - 1217 IS - 14 N2 - This paper describes the development of a multi-residue method for the determination of 36 emerging organic pollutants (26 biocides, 5 UV-filters and 5 benzothiazoles) in raw and treated wastewater, activated sludge and surface water using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The target analytes were enriched from water samples adjusted to pH 6 by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on Oasis HLB 200mg cartridges and eluted with a mixture of methanol and acetone (60/40, v/v). Extraction of freeze-dried sludge samples was accomplished by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using a mixture of methanol and water (50/50, v/v) as extraction solvent followed by SPE. LC-tandem MS detection was compared using electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive and negative ionization mode. ESI exhibited strong ion suppression for most target analytes, while APCI was generally less susceptible to ion suppression but partially leading to ion enhancement of up to a factor of 10. In general, matrix effects could be compensated using stable isotope-labeled surrogate standards, indicated by relative recoveries ranging from 70% to 130%. In wastewater, activated sludge and surface water up to 33 analytes were detected. Maximum concentrations up to 5.1 and 3.9mugL(-1) were found in raw wastewater for the water-soluble UV-filters benzophenone-4 (BZP-4) and phenylbenz-imidazole sulfonic acid (PBSA), respectively. For the first time, the anti-dandruff climbazole was detected in raw wastewater and in activated sludge with concentrations as high as 1.4 microg L(-1) and 1.2 microg gTSS(-1), respectively. Activated sludge is obviously a sink for four benzothiazoles and two isothiazolones, as concentrations were detected in activated sludge between 120 ng gTSS(-1) (2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, OIT) to 330 ng gTSS(-1) (benzothiazole-2-sulfonic acid, BTSA). SN - 1873-3778 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20202641/Comparison_of_electrospray_ionization_and_atmospheric_pressure_chemical_ionization_for_multi_residue_analysis_of_biocides_UV_filters_and_benzothiazoles_in_aqueous_matrices_and_activated_sludge_by_liquid_chromatography_tandem_mass_spectrometry_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9673(10)00155-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -