Blood-brain barrier abnormalities caused by exposure to HIV-1 gp120--protection by gene delivery of antioxidant enzymes.Neurobiol Dis. 2010 May; 38(2):313-25.ND
HIV-1 effects on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) structure and function are still poorly understood in animal models based on direct administration of recombinant HIV proteins. We therefore injected HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, into rat caudate-putamens (CPs) and examined vascular integrity and function. Gp120 coimmunostained with endothelial cell marker, CD31. It induced apoptosis of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. BBB function was assessed by administering Evans Blue (EB) intravenously before injecting gp120. EB leaked near the site of gp120 administration. Within 1h after intra-CP gp120 injection, structures positive for endothelial markers ICAM-1 and RECA-1 were greatly decreased. Vascular density assessed by laminin immunostaining remained decreased 1 month after gp120 injection. RECA-1-positive cells expressed hydroxynonenal, a marker of lipid peroxidation and rSV40-mediated gene delivery of antioxidant enzymes protected the BBB from gp120-related injury. Extravasated IgG accumulated following intra-CP SV(gp120) injection, an experimental model of continuing gp120 exposure. Thus: acute and chronic exposure to gp120 disrupts the BBB; gp120-mediated BBB abnormalities are related to lesions of brain microvessels; and gp120 is directly toxic to brain endothelial cells.