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Prenatal and adolescent blood lead levels in South Africa: child, maternal and household risk factors in the Birth to Twenty cohort.
Environ Res. 2010 May; 110(4):355-62.ER

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

The risk factors for lead exposure in developing countries have not been fully described. This study looks at child, maternal and household factors associated with increased risk of lead exposure at birth and at 13 years of age in the Birth to Twenty cohort.

METHODS

Mothers were recruited from antenatal clinics in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area in 1990 (n=3273). Lead levels were analysed in cord blood collected at birth (n=618) and at 13 years (n=1546). Data on selected child, maternal and household factors were collected using a structured questionnaire in the third trimester and at 13 years of age. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the associated risk factors.

RESULTS

The mean blood lead level at birth was 5.85 microg/dl, and at 13 years of age it was 5.66 microg/dl. The majority of children had blood lead levels above 5 microg/dl (52% at birth and 56% at 13 years). At birth, being a teenage mother and having low educational status were strong predictors for elevated cord blood lead levels. Being a male child, having an elevated cord blood level, and lack of household ownership of a phone were significant risk factors for high blood lead levels at 13 years.

CONCLUSION

Significant associations found in the study point to the low socio-economic status of lead-affected mothers and children. These poor circumstances frequently persist into later childhood, resulting in continued high lead levels. Thus broader measures of poverty alleviation and provision of better education may help decrease the risk of exposure.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Medical Research Council of South Africa, Environment and Health Research Unit, PO Box 87373, Houghton 2041, Johannesburg, South Africa. nisha.naicker@mrc.ac.zaNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20226441

Citation

Naicker, Nisha, et al. "Prenatal and Adolescent Blood Lead Levels in South Africa: Child, Maternal and Household Risk Factors in the Birth to Twenty Cohort." Environmental Research, vol. 110, no. 4, 2010, pp. 355-62.
Naicker N, Norris SA, Mathee A, et al. Prenatal and adolescent blood lead levels in South Africa: child, maternal and household risk factors in the Birth to Twenty cohort. Environ Res. 2010;110(4):355-62.
Naicker, N., Norris, S. A., Mathee, A., von Schirnding, Y. E., & Richter, L. (2010). Prenatal and adolescent blood lead levels in South Africa: child, maternal and household risk factors in the Birth to Twenty cohort. Environmental Research, 110(4), 355-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2010.02.006
Naicker N, et al. Prenatal and Adolescent Blood Lead Levels in South Africa: Child, Maternal and Household Risk Factors in the Birth to Twenty Cohort. Environ Res. 2010;110(4):355-62. PubMed PMID: 20226441.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prenatal and adolescent blood lead levels in South Africa: child, maternal and household risk factors in the Birth to Twenty cohort. AU - Naicker,Nisha, AU - Norris,Shane A, AU - Mathee,Angela, AU - von Schirnding,Yasmin E, AU - Richter,Linda, Y1 - 2010/03/11/ PY - 2009/06/09/received PY - 2010/02/08/revised PY - 2010/02/22/accepted PY - 2010/3/16/entrez PY - 2010/3/17/pubmed PY - 2010/5/1/medline SP - 355 EP - 62 JF - Environmental research JO - Environ Res VL - 110 IS - 4 N2 - INTRODUCTION: The risk factors for lead exposure in developing countries have not been fully described. This study looks at child, maternal and household factors associated with increased risk of lead exposure at birth and at 13 years of age in the Birth to Twenty cohort. METHODS: Mothers were recruited from antenatal clinics in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area in 1990 (n=3273). Lead levels were analysed in cord blood collected at birth (n=618) and at 13 years (n=1546). Data on selected child, maternal and household factors were collected using a structured questionnaire in the third trimester and at 13 years of age. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the associated risk factors. RESULTS: The mean blood lead level at birth was 5.85 microg/dl, and at 13 years of age it was 5.66 microg/dl. The majority of children had blood lead levels above 5 microg/dl (52% at birth and 56% at 13 years). At birth, being a teenage mother and having low educational status were strong predictors for elevated cord blood lead levels. Being a male child, having an elevated cord blood level, and lack of household ownership of a phone were significant risk factors for high blood lead levels at 13 years. CONCLUSION: Significant associations found in the study point to the low socio-economic status of lead-affected mothers and children. These poor circumstances frequently persist into later childhood, resulting in continued high lead levels. Thus broader measures of poverty alleviation and provision of better education may help decrease the risk of exposure. SN - 1096-0953 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20226441/Prenatal_and_adolescent_blood_lead_levels_in_South_Africa:_child_maternal_and_household_risk_factors_in_the_Birth_to_Twenty_cohort_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0013-9351(10)00037-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -