Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Diversity of Micrurus snake species related to their venom toxic effects and the prospective of antivenom neutralization.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Mar 09; 4(3):e622.PN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and respiratory arrest, few hours after envenomation. The specific treatment for coral snake envenomation is the intravenous application of heterologous antivenom and, in Brazil, it is produced by horse immunization with a mixture of M. corallinus and M. frontalis venoms, snakes that inhabit the South and Southeastern regions of the country. However, this antivenom might be inefficient, considering the existence of intra- and inter-specific variations in the composition of the venoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic properties of venoms from nine species of Micrurus: eight present in different geographic regions of Brazil (M. frontalis, M. corallinus, M. hemprichii, M. spixii, M. altirostris, M. surinamensis, M. ibiboboca, M. lemniscatus) and one (M. fulvius) with large distribution in Southeastern United States and Mexico. This study also analyzed the antigenic cross-reactivity and the neutralizing potential of the Brazilian coral snake antivenom against these Micrurus venoms.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS

Analysis of protein composition and toxicity revealed a large diversity of venoms from the nine Micrurus species. ELISA and Western blot assays showed a varied capability of the therapeutic antivenom to recognize the diverse species venom components. In vivo and in vitro neutralization assays indicated that the antivenom is not able to fully neutralize the toxic activities of all venoms.

CONCLUSION

These results indicate the existence of a large range of both qualitative and quantitative variations in Micrurus venoms, probably reflecting the adaptation of the snakes from this genus to vastly dissimilar habitats. The data also show that the antivenom used for human therapy in Brazil is not fully able to neutralize the main toxic activities present in the venoms from all Micrurus species occurring in the country. It suggests that modifications in the immunization scheme, with the inclusion of other venoms in the antigenic mixture, should occur in order to generate effective therapeutic coral snake antivenom.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20231886

Citation

Tanaka, Gabriela D., et al. "Diversity of Micrurus Snake Species Related to Their Venom Toxic Effects and the Prospective of Antivenom Neutralization." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 4, no. 3, 2010, pp. e622.
Tanaka GD, Furtado Mde F, Portaro FC, et al. Diversity of Micrurus snake species related to their venom toxic effects and the prospective of antivenom neutralization. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4(3):e622.
Tanaka, G. D., Furtado, M. d. e. . F., Portaro, F. C., Sant'Anna, O. A., & Tambourgi, D. V. (2010). Diversity of Micrurus snake species related to their venom toxic effects and the prospective of antivenom neutralization. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 4(3), e622. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000622
Tanaka GD, et al. Diversity of Micrurus Snake Species Related to Their Venom Toxic Effects and the Prospective of Antivenom Neutralization. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Mar 9;4(3):e622. PubMed PMID: 20231886.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Diversity of Micrurus snake species related to their venom toxic effects and the prospective of antivenom neutralization. AU - Tanaka,Gabriela D, AU - Furtado,Maria de Fátima D, AU - Portaro,Fernanda C V, AU - Sant'Anna,Osvaldo Augusto, AU - Tambourgi,Denise V, Y1 - 2010/03/09/ PY - 2009/10/01/received PY - 2010/01/20/accepted PY - 2010/3/17/entrez PY - 2010/3/17/pubmed PY - 2010/5/21/medline SP - e622 EP - e622 JF - PLoS neglected tropical diseases JO - PLoS Negl Trop Dis VL - 4 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and respiratory arrest, few hours after envenomation. The specific treatment for coral snake envenomation is the intravenous application of heterologous antivenom and, in Brazil, it is produced by horse immunization with a mixture of M. corallinus and M. frontalis venoms, snakes that inhabit the South and Southeastern regions of the country. However, this antivenom might be inefficient, considering the existence of intra- and inter-specific variations in the composition of the venoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic properties of venoms from nine species of Micrurus: eight present in different geographic regions of Brazil (M. frontalis, M. corallinus, M. hemprichii, M. spixii, M. altirostris, M. surinamensis, M. ibiboboca, M. lemniscatus) and one (M. fulvius) with large distribution in Southeastern United States and Mexico. This study also analyzed the antigenic cross-reactivity and the neutralizing potential of the Brazilian coral snake antivenom against these Micrurus venoms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of protein composition and toxicity revealed a large diversity of venoms from the nine Micrurus species. ELISA and Western blot assays showed a varied capability of the therapeutic antivenom to recognize the diverse species venom components. In vivo and in vitro neutralization assays indicated that the antivenom is not able to fully neutralize the toxic activities of all venoms. CONCLUSION: These results indicate the existence of a large range of both qualitative and quantitative variations in Micrurus venoms, probably reflecting the adaptation of the snakes from this genus to vastly dissimilar habitats. The data also show that the antivenom used for human therapy in Brazil is not fully able to neutralize the main toxic activities present in the venoms from all Micrurus species occurring in the country. It suggests that modifications in the immunization scheme, with the inclusion of other venoms in the antigenic mixture, should occur in order to generate effective therapeutic coral snake antivenom. SN - 1935-2735 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20231886/Diversity_of_Micrurus_snake_species_related_to_their_venom_toxic_effects_and_the_prospective_of_antivenom_neutralization_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000622 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -