Elevated Na+/K+-ATPase responses and its potential role in triggering ion reabsorption in kidneys for homeostasis of marine euryhaline milkfish (Chanos chanos) when acclimated to hypotonic fresh water.J Comp Physiol B. 2010 Aug; 180(6):813-24.JC
The milkfish (Chanos chanos) is an economic species in Southeast Asia. In Taiwan, the milkfish are commercially cultured in environments of various salinities. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) is a key enzyme for fish iono- and osmoregulation. When compared with gills, NKA and its potential role were less examined by different approaches in the other osmoregulatory organs (e.g., kidney) of euryhaline teleosts. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between osmoregulatory plasticity and renal NKA in this euryhaline species. Muscle water contents (MWC), plasma, and urine osmolality, kidney histology, as well as distribution, expression (mRNA and protein), and specific activity of renal NKA were examined in juvenile milkfish acclimated to fresh water (FW), seawater (SW 35 per thousand), and hypersaline water (HSW 60 per thousand) for at least two weeks before experiments. MWC showed no significant difference among all groups. Plasma osmolality was maintained within the range of physiological homeostasis in milkfish acclimated to different salinities, while, urine osmolality of FW-acclimated fish was evidently lower than SW- and HSW-acclimated individuals. The renal tubules were identified by staining with periodic acid Schiff's reagent and hematoxylin. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining showed that NKA was distributed in the epithelial cells of proximal tubules, distal tubules, and collecting tubules, but not in glomeruli, of milkfish exposed to different ambient salinities. The highest abundance of relative NKA alpha subunit mRNA was found in FW-acclimated milkfish rather than SW- and HSW-acclimated individuals. Furthermore, relative protein amounts of renal NKA alpha and beta subunits as well as NKA-specific activity were also found to be higher in the FW group than SW and the HSW groups. This study integrated diverse levels (i.e., histological distribution, gene, protein, and specific activity) of renal NKA expression and illustrated the potential role of NKA in triggering ion reabsorption in kidneys of the marine euryhaline milkfish when acclimated to a hypotonic FW environment.