Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and intake of carbohydrate and rice in relation to risk of mortality from stroke and its subtypes in Japanese men and women.Metabolism 2010; 59(11):1574-82M
We assessed the relationship of the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intake of carbohydrate and rice, and risk of mortality from stroke and its subtypes. The cohort consisted of 12,561 men and 15,301 women residing in Takayama, Japan, in 1992. At the baseline, a food frequency questionnaire was administered; and the dietary GI, GL, and intake of carbohydrates and rice were estimated. Deaths from stroke occurring in the cohort were prospectively noted until 1999 with data from the office of the National Vital Statistics. The risk of mortality from stroke was assessed with a Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age; body mass index; smoking status; physical activity; history of hypertension; education; and intake of total energy, alcohol, dietary fiber, salt, and total fat. The risk of stroke subtypes was assessed in the age-adjusted model. The hazard ratios of total stroke comparing the highest vs the lowest quartiles of the dietary GI were 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-1.47) with P(trend) = .50 in men and 2.09 (95% CI, 1.01-4.31) with P(trend) = .10 in women. Among women, the association was also significant with the risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.01-5.92; P(trend) = .03); and a significant positive trend was also observed between dietary GL and mortality from hemorrhagic stroke (P(trend) = .05). The current study implies that diets with a high dietary GI increase the risk of mortality from stroke among Japanese women.